SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

CORREA, Juan C. et al. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of handrubs for prevention of infectious diseases among children in Colombia. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2012, vol.31, n.6, pp.476-484. ISSN 1680-5348.

    1. World Health Organization. The world health report 2007: a safer future: global public health security in the 21st century. Available from: Accessed 15 July 2009. [ Links ]

    2. World Health Organization. Revised global burden of disease (GBD) 2002 estimates: Incidence, prevalence, mortality, YLL, YLD and DALYs by sex, cause and region, estimates for 2002. In: World Health Report 2004. Available from: Accessed 16 May 2007. [ Links ]

    3. Acosta-Ramírez N, Peñaloza RE, Rodríguez- García J. Carga de enfermedad Colombia 2005: Resultados alcanzados. Bogotá, Colombia: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Centro de Proyectos para el Desarrollo; 2005. [ Links ]

    4. UN Millennium Project 2005, Lenton R, Wright AM, Lewis K. Health, dignity, and development: what will it take? London; Sterling, VA: Earthscan; 2005. Available from: Accessed 12 December 2008. [ Links ]

    5. Bloomfield SF, Aiello AE, Cookson B, O'Boyle C, Larson EL. The effectiveness of hand hygiene procedures in reducing the risks of infections in home and community settings including handwashing and alcoholbased hand sanitizers. Am J Infec Control. 2007;35(10):S27-64. [ Links ]

    6. Boyce JM, Pittet D, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, HICPAC/ SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force Guideline for hand hygiene in healthcare settings Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002;51(RR-16):1-45. Available from: Accessed 20 December 2008. [ Links ]

    7. Larson E. A causal link between handwashing and risk of infection? Examination of the evidence. Infect Control. 1988 Jan;9(1):28-36. [ Links ]

    8. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ World Bank, Bank-Netherlands Water Partnership, Water and Sanitation Program. Hand washing manual: A guide for developing a hygiene promotion program to increase handwashing with soap. Available from: Accessed 16 May 2007. [ Links ]

    9. United Nations Development Program. Human development report 2006. Beyond scarcity: power, poverty and the global water crisis. Basingstoke, New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2006. Available from: Accessed 19 September 2011. [ Links ]

    10. World Health Organization, UNICEF, WHO/UNICEF Joint Water Supply and Sanitation Monitoring Programme. Progress on sanitation and drinking water 2010 update. Geneva; New York: World Health Organization; UNICEF; 2010. Available from: Accessed 19 September 2011. [ Links ]

    11. Lopez-Quintero C, Freeman P, Neumark Y. Hand washing among school children in Bogota, Colombia. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(1):94-101. [ Links ]

    12. Pittet D. Compliance with hand disinfection and its impact on hospital-acquired infections. J Hosp Infect. 2001;48(Aug)(Suppl A):S40-6. [ Links ]

    13. Larson EL, Lin SX, Gomez-Pichardo C, Della- Latta P. Effect of antibacterial home cleaning and handwashing products on infectious disease symptoms: a randomized, double-blind trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(5):321-9. [ Links ]

    14. Pickering AJ, Boehm AB, Mwanjali M, Davis J. Efficacy of waterless hand hygiene compared with handwashing with soap: a field study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82(2):270-8. [ Links ]

    15. Luby SP, Kadir MA, Yushuf Sharker MA, Yeasmin F, Unicomb L, Sirajul Islam M. A community-randomised controlled trial promoting waterless hand sanitizer and handwashing with soap, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15(12):1508-16. [ Links ]

    16. Sandora TJ, Taveras EM, Shih M-C, Resnick EA, Lee GM, Ross-Degnan D, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home. Pediatrics. 2005;116(3):587-94. [ Links ]

    17. California State Department of Education. Techniques for preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Sacramento: California State Department of Education; 1983. [ Links ]

    18. Geiger BF, Artz L, Petri CJ, Winnail SD, Mason JW. Fun with handwashing education. Birmingham: University of Alabama; 2000. [ Links ]

    19. Roberts A, Pareja R, Shaw W, Boyd B, Booth E, Mata JI. A tool box for building health communication capacity. Available from: Accessed 10 October 2007. [ Links ]

    20. Stark P. Handwashing technique. Instructor's packet. Learning activity package. Sacramento: California State Department of Education; 1982. [ Links ]

    21. Roberts L, Jorm L, Patel M, Smith W, Douglas RM, McGilchrist C. Effect of infection control measures on the frequency of diarrheal episodes in childcare: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2000;105(4):743-6. [ Links ]

    22. Roberts L, Smith W, Jorm L, Patel M, Douglas RM, McGilchrist C. Effect of infection control measures on the frequency of upper respiratory infection in childcare: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2000; 105(4):738-42. [ Links ]

    23. Killip S, Mahfoud Z, Pearce K, Killip S, Mahfoud Z, Pearce K. What is an intracluster correlation coefficient? Crucial concepts for primary care researchers. Ann Fam Med. 2004;2(3):204-8. [ Links ]

    24. McGraw KO, Wong SP. Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients. Psychol Methods. 1996;1(1):30-46. [ Links ]

    25. Shrout PE, Fleiss JL. Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin Does not appear in NLM usually name is referenced in full. 1979;86(2):420-8. [ Links ]

    26. StataCorp LP. Loneway Large one-way ANOVA, random effects, and reliability. Stata Base Reference Manual I-P: Release 10. College Station,Texas, United States of America: StataCorp; 2007. Pp. 194-9. [ Links ]

    27. Grove GL, Zerweck CR, Heilman JM, Pyrek JD. Methods for evaluating changes in skin condition due to the effects of antimicrobial hand cleansers: two studies comparing a new waterless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanolemollient antiseptic preparation with a conventional water-applied product. Am J Infect Control. 2001;29(6):361-9. [ Links ]

    28. Clayton DG, Cuzick J. Multivariate generalizations of the proportional hazard models (with discussion). J R Stat Soc Ser A. 1985;148:82-117. [ Links ]

    29. Cleves MA, Gould WW, Gutierrez RG. An introduction to survival analysis using Stata, Revised Edition. College Station, Texas, United States of America: StataCorp Press; 2004. [ Links ]

    30. Kelly PJ, Lim LL-Y. Survival Analysis for recurrent event data: an application to childhood infectious diseases. Stat Med. 2000; 19:13-33. [ Links ]

    31. Moulton LH, Dibley MJ. Multivariate time-toevent models for studies of recurrent childhood diseases. Int J Epidemiol. 1997;26:1334-9. [ Links ]

    32. Nielsen GG, Gill RD, Andersen PK, Sorensen TI. A counting process approach to maximum likelihood estimation in frailty models. Scand J Stat. 1992;19:25-43. [ Links ]

    33. Wintrebert CMA. Statistical modelling of repeated and multivariate survival data. Leiden: Leiden University Medical Center; 2007. [ Links ]

    34. Symons MJ, Moore DT. Hazard rate ratio and prospective epidemiological studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55(9):893-9. [ Links ]

    35. Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. Effect of Hand Hygiene on Infectious Disease Risk in the Community Setting: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(8):1372-81. [ Links ]

    36. Ejemot R, Ehiri J, Meremikwu M, Critchley J. Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008-23(1): CD004265. [ Links ]

    37. Glass RI, Parashar UD, Estes MK. Norovirus gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(18):1776-85. [ Links ]

    38. Liu P, Yuen Y, Hsiao H-M, Jaykus L-A, Moe C. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76(2):394-9. [ Links ]

    39. Macinga DR, Sattar SA, Jaykus L-A, Arbogast JW. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74(16):5047-52. [ Links ]

    40. Okunishi J, Okamoto K, Nishihara Y, Tsujitani K, Miura T, Matsuse H, et al. Investigation of in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a novel alcohol based Handrub, MR06B7. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2010;130(5):747-54. [ Links ]

    41. Allegranzi B, Sax H, Bengaly L, Richet H, Minta DK, Chraiti MN, et al. Successful implementation of the World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a referral hospital in Mali, Africa. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(2):133-41. [ Links ]