SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

BRICENO-LEON, Roberto. La Comprensión de los Homicidios en América Latina: ¿Pobreza o Institucionalidad?. Ciênc. saúde coletiva [online]. 2012, vol.17, n.12, pp. 3159-3170. ISSN 1413-8123.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232012001200002.

    1. CEPAL. Panorama Social 2010. Santiago de Chile: Cepal; 2010. [ Links ]

    2. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2011 Global Study on Homicide. Trends, Context, Data. New York: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; 2011. [ Links ]

    3. Reza A, Mercy J, Krug E. Epidemiology of violent deaths in the world. Injury Prevention 2001; 7(2):104-111. [ Links ]

    4. World Health Organization (WHO). Global Health Observatory Data Repository. [En línea] 2011. [acessado 2012 April 17]. Disponível em: http://apps.who.int/ghodata/#. [ Links ]

    5. Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Encuesta Nacional de Victimización y Percepción de la Seguridad Ciudadana. Vice-Presidencia de la República. Caracas: INE; 2010. [ Links ]

    6. Souza ER, ML Carvalho de Lima, Duque Bezerra EA. Homicides in Brazil: evolution and impacts. In: Lovisi GM, Mari JJ, Valencia E, editors. The psychological impact of living under violence and poverty in Brazil. New York: Nova Science Publisher Inc; 2010. [ Links ]

    7. Waiselfisz JJ. Mapa da Violencia 2010. Anatomia dos Homicídios no Brasil. São Paulo: Instituto Sangari; 2011. [ Links ]

    8. Braudel F. Histoire et Sciences Sociales. La Longue durée. Annales-Économie, Sociétés, Civilisations 1958; 13(4):725-753. [ Links ]

    9. Norbert E. El Proceso de la Civilización, Investigaciones Sociogenéticas y Psicogenéticas. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica; 1987. [ Links ]

    10. Sharpe JA. Crime in England: Long-term Trends and Problem of Modernization. Johnson EA, Monkkonen EH, editors. The Civilization of Crime. Violence in Town and Country since the Middle Age. Chicago: University of Illinois Press; 1996. p.17-34. [ Links ]

    11. Gurr TR. Historical trends in violent crime: A critical review of the evidence. Crime and Justice 1981; (3):295-253. [ Links ]

    12. Cooper A, Smith EL. Homicide Trends in the United States, 1980-2008. In: Bureau of Justice Stastistics (BJS). Department of Justice. Reports & Trends. Washignton, DC: BJS; 2011. p. 36. [ Links ]

    13. Roberts A, LaFree G. Explaining Japan's postwar violent crime trends. Criminology 2004; 42(1):179-109. [ Links ]

    14. Prada O, Fernando D. Las cifras del conflicto colombiano. Bogotá: Indepaz; 2007. [ Links ]

    15. Vargas Velásquez A, García Pinzón V. Violencia urbana, seguridad ciudadana y políticas públicas: la reducción de la violencia en las ciudades de Bogotá y Medellín (Colombia) 1991-2007. Pensamiento Iberoamericano 2008; (2):249-270. [ Links ]

    16. Briceño-León R, Avila O, Camardiel A. Violencia e Institucionalidad. Caracas : Editorial Alfa; 2012. [ Links ]

    17. Goertzel T, Kahn T. The great Sao Paulo homicide drop. Homicide Studies 2009; 13(4):398-310. [ Links ]

    18. Escalante Gonzalbo F. El homicidio en México entre 1990 y 2007. Aproximación estadística. México: El Colegio de México, Secretaría de Seguridad Pública Federal; 2009. [ Links ]

    19. Wolfgang ME. Patterns in Criminal Homicide. Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania; 1958. [ Links ]

    20. Briceño-León R. Sociología de la Violencia en América Latina. Quito: Facultad Latino americana de Ciencias Sociales; 2008. [ Links ]

    21. Briceño-León R. Urban Violence and Public Health in Latin America: A sociological explanatory model. Cad Saude Publica 2005; 21(6):1629-1664. [ Links ]

    22. Cerqueira D, Lobao W. Determinantes da criminalidade: arcabouços teóricos e resultados empíricos. Dados 2004; 47(2):233-269. [ Links ]

    23. Adorno S. Exclusão socioeconômica e violência urbana Sociologias 2002; 1(1):84-35. [ Links ]

    24. Szwarcwald CL, Bastos FI, Viacava F, Andrade CL. Income Inequality and Homicide Rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Am J Public Health 1999; 89(6): 845-850. [ Links ]

    25. Zaluar A, Noronha JC, Albuquerque C.Violência: pobreza ou franqueza institucional. Cad Saude Publica 1994; 10(Supl. 1):213-217. [ Links ]

    26. Beato C, Totino Peixoto B. Há nada certo. Políticas sociais e crime em espaços urbanos. In: Trajano J, organizador. Prevenção da violência o papel das cidades. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira; 2005. p. 163-202. [ Links ]

    27. Rushke G, Kirchheimer O. Punishment and Social Structure. New York: Russell & Russell; 1968. [ Links ]

    28. Burdett K, Lagos R, Wright R. Crime, inequality, and unemployment. The American Economic Review 2003; 93(5):1764-1777. [ Links ]

    29. Felson M, Cohen L. Human ecology and crime: A routine activity approach. Human Ecology 1980; 8(4):389-306. [ Links ]

    30. Galtung J, Hölvik T. Structural and direct violence: A note on operationalization. Journal of Peace Research 1971; 8(1):73-76. [ Links ]

    31. Farmer P. An antropology of structural violence. Current Antropology 2004; (453):305-325. [ Links ]

    32. Blau JP, Blau PM. The Cost of Inequality: Metropolitan Structure and Violent Crime.  American Sociological Review 1982; 47(1):114-129. [ Links ]

    33. Fajnzylber P, Lederman D, Norman L. Inequality and violent crime. Journal of Law and Economics 2002; 45(1):1-40. [ Links ]

    34. World Bank. World Development Report 2011: Conflict , Security and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2011. [ Links ]

    35. Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Informe Mundial sobre Violencia. Ginebra: OMS; 2000. [ Links ]

    36. Geneva Declaration. The Global Burden of Amerd Violence. Geneva: Geneva Declaration; 2011. [ Links ]

    37. Neumayer E. Inequality and Violent Crime: Evidence from Data on Robbery and Violent Theft. Journal of Peace Research 2005; 42(1):101-112. [ Links ]

    38. Cano I, Santos N. Violência letal, renda e desigualdad social no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: 7 Letras; 2001. [ Links ]

    39. Gawryszewski VP, Costa LS.Homicídios e desigualdades sociais no Município de São Paulo. Rev Saude Publica 2005; 39(2):191-197. [ Links ]

    40. Bourguignon F, Nuñez J, Sanchez F. A structural model of crime and inequality in Colombia. Journal of the European Economic Asociation 2003; 3(1):440-449. [ Links ]

    41. Sartre JP. Preface. In: Fanon F. Les damnés de la terre. París: Francois Maspero; 1961. [ Links ]

    42. Bourdieu P. Sur le pouvoir symbolique. Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales 1977; 3:405-411. [ Links ]

    43. Sutherland EH. A Theory of Crime: Differential ssociation. Sutherland EH, Cressey D. Principles of Criminology. Chicago: J.B. Lippincott; 1955. [ Links ]

    44. Corzine J. Theory of Homicide. Homicide Studies 2011; 15(4):315-318. [ Links ]

    45. Parsons  T. Prolegomena to a Theory of Social Institutions. American Sociological Review 1990; 55(3):319-333. [ Links ]

    46. Durkheim E. De la division du travail social. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; 1978. [ Links ]

    47. Merton RK. Teoría y estructura social. México DF: Fondo de Cultura Económica; 1965. [ Links ]

    48. Hart HLH. Prolegomenon to the Principles of Punishment. In: Hart HLA, editor. Punishment and Responsability. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008. p. 1-28. [ Links ]

    49. Becker G. Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy 1968; 76(2):169-117. [ Links ]

    50. Messner SS, Rosenfeld R. Crime and the American Dream. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 2001. [ Links ]

    51. Becker H. Outsiders. New York: The Free Press; 1973. [ Links ]

    52. Ferrel J. Cultural Criminology. Annual Review of Sociology 1999; 25:395-418. [ Links ]

    53. Mockus A, Murraín H, Villa M. Antípodas de la Violencia. Desafíos de cultura ciudadana para la crisis de (in)seguridad en América Latina. New York: Banco Intermaericano de Desarrollo – Corpovisionarios; 2012. [ Links ]

    54. Sen A. The Idea of Justice. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 2009. [ Links ]

    55. Boudon R. The Moral Sense. International Sociology 1997; XII(1):5-24. [ Links ]

    56. North DC, Wallis JJ, Weingast BR. Violence and Social Order. A conceptual Framework for interpreting Recorded Human History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009. [ Links ]

    57. La Free G. Losing Legitimacy: Street Crime and the decline of social institutions in America. Boulder: C.O. Westview; 1998. [ Links ]

    58. Policía Nacional de Colombia. Tablas estadísticas. Revista Criminalidad 2012; 54(1):55-160. [ Links ]

    59. Comision Economica para America Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), División de Desarrollo Económico. Balance Preliminar de las Economías de America Latina y el Caribe 2011. Santiago de Chile: Cepal; 2011. [ Links ]

    60. World Bank. [En línea] 2012. [acessado 2012 Feb 24]. Disponível em: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD/countries?page=4. [ Links ]

    61. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [En línea]. 2012 [acessado 2012 Mar 44]. Disponível em: http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table2.pdf. [ Links ]

    62. Kaufmann D, Kraay A, Mastruzzi M. Worldwide Governance indicators 2011. World Bank. Washington: World Bank Group; 2012. [ Links ]

    63. Pridemore WA. A Methodological Addition to the Cross-National Empirical Literature on Social Structure and Homicide: A First Test of the Poverty-Homicide Thesis. Criminology 2008; 46(1):133-154. [ Links ]

    64. Rosenfeld R, Messner S F. The Social Sources of Homicide in Different Types of Societies. Sociological Forum 1991; 6(1):51-70. [ Links ]

    65. Cole JH, Marroquín Gramajo A. Homicide Rates in a Cross-Section of Countries: Evidence and Interpretations. 2009. Population and Development Review 2009; 35(4):749-776. [ Links ]

    66. Hansmann HB, Quigley JM. Population Heterogeneity and the Sociogenesis of Homicide. Social Forces 1982; 61(1):206-224. [ Links ]

    67. McCall PL, Land KC, Parker KF. An Empirical Assessment of What We Know About Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates: A Return to a Classic 20 Years Later. Homicide Studies 2010; 14:219-243. [ Links ]

    68. Pratt TC, Lowenkamp CT. Conflict Theory, Economic Conditions, and Homicide. Homicide Studies 2002; 6(1):61-83. [ Links ]

    69. Guidice M. Normativity and Norm-Subjects. Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy 2005; 30:102-121. [ Links ]

    70. LaFree G, Tseloni A. Democracy and Crime: A Multilevel Analysis of Homicide Trends in Fourty-Four Countries, 1950-2000. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science; 2006; Democracy, Crime and Justice(605). p. 26-49. [ Links ]

    71. Rosenfeld R, Messner S, Baumer E. Social Capital and Homicide. Social Forces 2001; 80(1):283-310. [ Links ]

    72. Nadanovsky P. O aumento no encarceramento e a redução nos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1996 e 2005. Cad Saude Publica 2009; 25(8):1859-1864. [ Links ]