PUBLICATIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
Anna Maria Rossi
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO)
Multicriteria-based ranking for risk management of food-born parasites: report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting, 3-7 September 2012, FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. 2014, 302 p. (Microbiological Risk Assessment Series; 23) ISBN 978 92 5108 199 0 Job Number: I3649. Infectious diseases caused by food-borne parasites have not received the same level of attention as other food-borne biological and chemical hazards. Nevertheless, they cause a high burden of disease in humans, may have prolonged, severe, and sometimes fatal outcomes, and result in considerable hardship in terms of food safety, security, quality of life, and negative impacts on livelihoods. This report presents the results of a global ranking of food-borne parasites from a food safety perspective. It also provides an overview of the current status of knowledge of the ranked parasites in food and their public health and trade impact, and provides advice and guidance on the parasite-commodity combinations of particular concern, the issues that need to be addressed by risk managers, and the risk management options available to them. It documents the ranking process used to facilitate its adoption at regional, national, or local levels. This volume and others in this Microbiological Risk Assessment Series contain information that is useful to both risk assessors and risk managers, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, governments and regulatory agencies, food producers and processers and other institutions or individuals with an interest in foodborne parasites and their impact on food safety, public health and livelihoods.
Meybeck, A, Redfern, S. Voluntary standards for sustainable food systems: challenges and opportunities. A workshop of the FAO/UNEP Programme on Sustainable Food Systems. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2014, 242 p. ISBN 978 92 5107 902 7 Job Number: I3421. With the sustainability of food systems becoming central to achieving food security, this report of the 2013 workshop on voluntary standards for sustainable food systems addresses in particular issues from the point of view of the many different stakeholders involved. By addressing the needs of all the various stakeholders, the likelihood of uptake and scaling up of the voluntary standards is substantially increased. The sessions of the workshop considered voluntary standards from points of views in order to better understand and address the needs of the various stakeholders in order to facilitate the uptake and scaling up of voluntary standards for sustainable food systems. This approach is grounded on the idea that for voluntary standards to work for sustainability they have to work for all stakeholders.
State of the art on the initiatives and activities relevant to risk assessment and risk management of nanotechnologies in the food and agriculture sectors. Geneva: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. 2013, 56 p. (FAO/WHO Technical paper) FAO ISBN 978 92 5107 6439 Job Number I3281E/1/04.13. An international expert meeting on the potential food safety implications of the application of nanotechnologies in the food and agriculture sectors was convened by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2009. This report was commissioned by FAO and WHO with the objective of summarizing and analysing the information that has become available since the 2009 expert meeting and determining possible courses of action to be followed by FAO and WHO in this matter. It reviews national and international activities on the risk analysis of nanomaterials in the food and agriculture sectors that have been carried out since the meeting. It presents national and international risk assessment and risk management approaches that identify and implement strategies to address potential hazards associated with the use of nanotechnology-related products or techniques. The expert meeting agreed that nanotechnology offers considerable opportunities for the development of innovative products and applications for agriculture, water treatment and food production, processing, preservation and packaging, and its use may benefit farmers, the food industry and consumers alike. It was noted that nanotechnology-derived food products will be increasingly available to consumers worldwide. It was recognized that there was a need for clear and internationally recognized definitions and that gaps in definitions in the food area could be addressed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (ILO)
Access to and effects of social protection on workers living with HIV and their households. Geneva: ILO June 2014; 117 p. ISBN 978 92 212 8771 1 The ILO has just launched this report which is the result of a process that included a global literature review, the development of a research methodology guide through consultation with experts, and research in four countries: Guatemala, Indonesia, Rwanda and Ukraine. It highlights the challenges faced by workers living with HIV and their households in accessing social protection programmes, examines the effects of such programmes on their lives and makes evidence-based recommendations. The report shows that even though policies do not exclude people living with HIV, they face challenges in accessing the existing social protection services, notably a lack of adequate knowledge about the programmes, complicated procedures for accessing programmes, and stigma and discrimination. With the possible exception of medical services, social protection access for PLHIV and key populations is wanting in the four countries. Data from the studies suggest that a combination of income, livelihood and employment support is needed, in addition to health services, for social protection to have a bigger impact on key HIV populations and the global literature review supports this point. As well, coordinated efforts involving ministries of labour, employers and the private sector and trade unions, ministries of health and gender, national AIDS programmes, social protection programmes, civil society organizations and PLHIV organizations are needed to address existing barriers and increase the proportion of PLHIV with access to and benefits from social assistance and other forms of social protection.
Addati L, Cassirer N, Gilchrist K. Maternity and paternity at work: Law and practice across the world. Geneva: ILO May 2014, xv+193 p. ISBN 978 92 212 8630 1 Sw.fr.30; US $ 30; 25,00. This report provides a picture of where we stand and what we have learned so far about maternity and paternity rights across the world. It offers a rich international comparative analysis of law and practice relating to maternity protection at work in 185 countries and territories, comprising leave, cash benefits, employment protection and non-discrimination, health protection, breastfeeding arrangements at work and childcare. Expanding on previous editions, it is based on an extensive set of new legal and statistical indicators, including coverage in law and in practice of paid maternity leave as well as statutory provision of paternity and parental leave and their evolution over the last 20 years. The report also takes account of the recent economic crisis and austerity measures. It shows how well national laws and practice conform to the ILO Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 (No. 183), its accompanying Recommendation (No. 191) and the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 (No. 156), and offers guidance on policy design and implementation. This report shows that a majority of countries have established legislation to protect and support maternity and paternity at work, even if those provisions do not always meet the ILO standards. One of the persistent challenges is the effective implementation of legislation, to ensure that all workers are able to benefit from these essential labour rights.
UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
A short technical update on self-testing for HIV. Geneva: UNAIDS. 2014, 44 p. Publication no. JC2603E. This technical update was prepared in November 2013 in collaboration with key experts, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UNAIDS. Its primary objective is to synthesize experiences, research and policies on HIV self-testing to inform stakeholders who are considering or already implementing HIV self-testing. HIV self-testing is a process whereby a person who wants to know his or her HIV status collects a specimen, performs a test and interprets the test result in private. HIV self-testing does not provide a definitive diagnosis; instead, it is a screening test for the presence of HIV-1/2 antibodies or the HIV-1 p24 antigen. Any positive HIV result must be confirmed by a health worker in accordance with national testing algorithms. HIV self-testing enables individuals to test themselves for HIV in private. By providing an opportunity for people to test themselves discreetly and conveniently, HIV self-testing may provide people who are not currently reached by existing HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services with information about their HIV status. Appropriate and adequate instructions for use of the HIV self-test kit are critical to reducing errors and maximizing its accuracy. Clear and concise printed instructions written and/or pictorial are essential to support correct use and interpretation. In particular, users need to understand that a reactive (positive) test result must be confirmed through further testing.
Local epidemics. Geneva: UNAIDS. 2014, 52 p. Publication no. JC2559/E. ISBN 978 92 9253 039 6 This issues brief has been developed following a consultation on geographic epidemiology held in Geneva, Switzerland 25-26 July, 2013. National and community efforts to halt the HIV epidemic are paying off, worldwide. Fewer people are acquiring HIV, fewer people are dying from AIDS-related illnesses and more people than ever before are accessing life-saving HIV treatment. However, progress is still uneven and, in some places, too slow. This brief discusses important new opportunities to reverse the HIV epidemic in specific locations and among key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure. More and more countries are collecting and analysing data that enable these locations to be identified and addressed. Data collection is expanding, and new methods are being used to identify where localized epidemics may be emerging, where specific populations are the most affected by HIV and where vital HIV services are deficient or absent. These data are being combined in innovative ways, including with geographical information, to produce a more detailed and vivid understanding of the HIV epidemic, down to the district and subdistrict levels. This makes it possible to focus HIV programmes more precisely and effectively and to offer or adapt services to reach greater numbers of people in need.
A focus on women: a key strategy to preventing HIV among children. Geneva: UNAIDS. 2014, 16 p. Publication no. JC2538E. ISBN 978 92 9253 035 8 The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) is a road map that provides the foundation for country-led movements to ensure that children are born without (and remain free of) HIV and that their mothers are supported to remain healthy. This issue brief is intended to inform and support partners in ensuring that the implementation of the Global Plan in their respective countries considers the best interests and rights of women. These partners include the relevant government ministries, health-care providers, policy-makers, development partners, donors and all NGOs that are involved in perinatal care. This brief is also intended for women living with HIV. It was prepared in consultation with women living with HIV, because they are central actors in the HIV response and should be engaged in a meaningful way in the implementation of the Global Plan. The design of the paper also takes into account different perspectives about the use of language in discussions about HIV and health services for those living with HIV. Stakeholders should carefully consider the terminology used in programming to ensure definitions are clear and not normative.
WORD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
Global status report on alcohol and health 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2014, 390 p. Sw.fr.60.00/ US $ 72.00 Order no. 11502805 The report presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States. WHO has published several reports in the past on this topic with the last one being published in 2011, but this report of 2014 has some unique features. First, it describes some progress made in alcohol policy development in WHO Member States after endorsement of the Global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol in 2010. Second, this report provides a wealth of information on alcohol-related indicators for the comprehensive global monitoring framework for the prevention and control of NCDs adopted by the 66th World Health Assembly. And thirdly, it presents an overview of some mechanisms and pathways which are behind the impact of harmful use of alcohol on public health.
Antimicrobial resistance. Global report on surveillance. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2014, 254 p. ISBN 978 92 415 6474 8 Sw.fr.40.00/ US $ 48.00 Order no. 11500870 This report, produced in collaboration with Member States and other partners, provides as accurate a picture as is presently possible of the magnitude of antimicrobial resistance MR and the current state of surveillance globally. The report focuses on antibacterial resistance (ABR) in common bacterial pathogens. One important finding of the report, which will serve as a baseline to measure future progress, is that there are many gaps in information on pathogens of major public health importance. In addition, surveillance of ABR generally is neither coordinated nor harmonized, compromising the quality and representativeness of many data. Nonetheless, the report makes a clear case that resistance to common bacteria has reached alarming levels in many parts of the world suggesting that many of the available treatment options for common infections in some settings are becoming ineffective.
Stewart, BW, Wild, CP. (Ed) World Cancer Report 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2014, 630 p. (IARC Nonserial Publication) ISBN 978 92 832 0429 9 Sw.fr.60.00/ US $ 72.00 Order no. 17600031 This book from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the specialized cancer agency of the WHO, provides a unique global view of cancer, including cancer patterns, causes, and prevention. The World Cancer Report series is recognized as an authoritative source of global perspective and information on cancer. The first volume appeared in 2003 and the second in 2008. This third volume in the series encompasses both established knowledge and recent research achievement. World Cancer Report provides a professional, multidisciplinary assessment of all aspects of the geographical distribution, biology, etiology, prevention, and control of cancer, predicated on research. The concise nature of the text and the high graphic content (hundreds of colour maps, diagrams, and photographs) make the publication accessible to a broad readership. It is designed to provide non-specialist health professionals and policy-makers with a balanced understanding of cancer control and to provide established cancer professionals with insights about recent development. The book includes chapters in which distinguished scientists from around the world provide a broad overview of established knowledge and then emphasize research activity and progress. In addition, text boxes distributed throughout the book provide short, in-depth discussions of selected questions or topics. A new feature of this volume is the inclusion of Perspectives considering the future development of different aspects of cancer research, written by those whose record of outstanding achievement qualifies them as individuals having unique vision.