Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Global efforts to eliminate tuberculosis by 2050 continue to challenge health systems. In countries with low reported tuberculosis incidence, such as the USA (3.1/100,000 population) and Cuba (6.9/100,000), differences in classification by income level and health systems’ overall organizational structure are evident. However, the two countries’ low tuberculosis incidence, geographic proximity, robust research capacity and shared health priority for tuberculosis elimination provide fertile territory to strengthen collaboration for tuberculosis control in clinical, laboratory and community settings. Two tuberculosis symposia in Cuba—one at the Cuba Salud Convention in 2015 and the other at the International Forum on Hygiene and Epidemiology in 2016—were instrumental in stimulating dialogue on continued efforts towards eliminating tuberculosis by 2050. In this article, we describe tuberculosis burden in the USA and Cuba, critically analyze strengths and challenges experienced in areas of low tuberculosis incidence and provide recommendations for future institutional collaboration to support tuberculosis elimination and improved population health.