Abstract in English:After nearly 60 years of universal education and health, coupled with national policies supporting women’s rights and advancement, the results are in: according to recent data, more than half of Cuban scientists and almost 60% of all professionals in Cuba are women. Moreover, women’s representation in government is rising, including at the highest levels such as parliament, where they constitute 53.2% of members. Digging deeper, we find a story richer than national statistics or political representation. It’s the story of the collective achievements of female professionals on the island. For example, the clinical research team responsible for developing CIMAvax-EGF, Cuba’s novel biotech therapy for non-small cell lung cancer, was headed by a woman. Likewise, the lead scientist of the Cuban team that developed the world’s first effective meningitis B vaccine is a woman. And the cofounder of the country’s clinical trials coordinating center and registry is a woman, as is the founder of the National Center for Agricultural Animal Health. Yet, as in any country, there is more to be done to achieve true gender parity and release the full potential of women. To begin our series profiling outstanding Cuban women professionals, MEDICC Review spoke with sociologist Dr Marta Núñez, who has devoted decades to research on gender relations and the role of women in Cuba. She provides an overview and framework for contextualizing the advancement of Cuban women—including the challenges still to overcome.