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  • Safety culture in the perception of public-hospital health professionals Original Articles

    Carvalho, Paloma Aparecida; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Gottems, Leila Bernarda Donato

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a cultura de segurança na percepção dos profissionais que trabalham nos hospitais públicos do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) do Distrito Federal, Brasil, três anos após a implantação do Programa Nacional de Segurança do Paciente (PNSP). MÉTODOS estudo transversal analítico realizado em onze hospitais públicos por meio do Safety Attitudes Questionnaire em formato eletrônico. A amostragem estratificada foi calculada, obedecendo à proporção do total de profissionais em cada hospital, assim como a representatividade de cada grupo profissional. Os resultados do escore total e dos domínios iguais ou maiores que 75 foram considerados positivos. Realizadas análises descritivas e inferenciais dos grupos profissionais e dos hospitais. RESULTADOS Participaram 909 profissionais. O escore total por grupo profissional foi negativo (62,5 a 69,5) e por domínio diferiram estatisticamente entre si em todos. Os onze hospitais tiveram escore total negativo (61,5 a 68,6). Os domínios com desempenho positivo foram satisfação no trabalho, percepção do estresse e clima de trabalho em equipe. Os resultados mais baixos foram condições de trabalho e percepção da gerência, e nenhum dos hospitais obteve média superior à 75 nesses domínios. Também foram encontradas diferenças nas médias dos domínios entre os hospitais, exceto em percepção da gerência. DISCUSSÃO Após três anos de implantação no PNSP, a cultura de segurança nos onze hospitais avaliados se mostrou fragilizada, embora os domínios satisfação no trabalho, percepção do estresse e clima de trabalho em equipe tiveram resultados positivos. Os resultados podem contribuir para a tomada de decisão dos gestores, pois a cultura de segurança é um elemento essencial na implementação da política de segurança do paciente.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluating safety culture in the perception of professionals working in public hospitals of the Unified Health System (SUS) of Distrito Federal, Brazil, three years after the implementation of the National Patient Safety Program (PNSP). METHODS Analytical cross-sectional study conducted in eleven public hospitals using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in electronic format. Stratified sampling was estimated according to the proportion of the total number of professionals in each hospital, as well as the representativeness of each professional group. The results of the total score and domains equal to or greater than 75 were considered positive. Descriptive and inferential analyses of professional groups and hospitals were carried out. RESULTS 909 professionals participated. The total score by professional group was negative (62.5 to 69.5) and the domains differed statistically in all cases. The eleven hospitals had a negative total score (61.5 to 68.6). The domains to attain positive performance were job satisfaction, stress recognition and teamwork climate. The lowest results were in working conditions and management perception domains, for which none of the hospitals had an average above 75. Differences were also found for domain means across hospitals, except in management perception. DISCUSSION Three years after the implementation of PNSP, the safety culture in eleven hospitals evaluated was weak, although the domains of job satisfaction, stress recognition and teamwork climate had positive results. The results can contribute to decision-making by managers, as safety culture is an essential element in the implementation of patient safety policy.
  • Prenatal care of Venezuelans in Colombia: migrants navigating the healthcare system Original Articles

    Giraldo, Vanesa; Sobczyk, Rita; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Rojas-Botero, Maylen Liseth; Bojorquez, Ietza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To explore the experiences of irregular (undocumented) Venezuelan migrants in accessing prenatal health services in Colombia and to examine the economic, social, and cultural resources mobilized by them to gain access to care. METHODS Data was retrieved from the qualitative component of a multi-method research conducted with pregnant immigrants in Barranquilla, Colombia, between 2018 and 2019, and triangulated with a review of regulations established by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection. RESULTS Having limited economic capital, participants use social capital from personal networks and migrant organizations. They obtain cultural health capital in the form of information on the health system and use their cultural competencies to interact with this system. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE Migrants exert their agency through the use of capitals, although with certain constraints. Policies aimed at this social group should consider the strengths of migrants.
  • Dietary patterns in Mexican preschool children are associated with stunting and overweight Original Articles

    Flores, Mario E.; Rivera-Pasquel, Marta; Macías, Nayeli; Sánchez-Zamorano, Luisa María; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between dietary patterns, stunting, and overweight among Mexican preschoolers. METHODS This study was conducted with anthropometric (weight, height/length), sociodemographic (age, gender, education level of household head, socioeconomic status, country region and area, ethnicity, and beneficiary of social programs), and dietary data (Semiquantitative-food frequency questionnaire) on children aged from 1 to 4 years collected from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012. Dietary patterns were derived by principal components analysis. The association between dietary patterns, stunting, and overweight was assessed by prevalence ratios (PR), estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS In total, 1,112 preschoolers (mean age 3.06 years, SD = 1.08 years; 48.8% females) were included in the study; 11.9% of whom presented stunting, and 6.7% overweight. We identified four dietary patterns: Fruits and Vegetables [F&V], Western [W], Traditional [T], and Milk and Liquids [M&L]. Considering the lowest tertile of each dietary pattern as reference, the prevalence of stunting was 2.04 times higher [95%CI: 1.17–3.56] among children in the highest tertile of the “F&V” pattern. The prevalence of stunting was lower among children in the highest tertile of the “W” pattern [PR = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.27–0.85]. Overweight was negatively associated with the “F&V” dietary pattern [PR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.16–0.85 for its highest tertile], and children whose consumption was mostly equivalent to the “T” pattern showed higher prevalence of stunting [PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.01–3.00]. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of stunting and overweight in a nationwide sample of Mexican preschoolers was associated with dietary patterns.
  • Food frequency questionnaire for adults in the Brazilian Northeast region: emphasis on the level of food processing Original Articles

    Motta, Virginia Williane de Lima; Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Lyra, Clélia de Oliveira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Desenvolver um Questionário de Frequência Alimentar (QFA) quantitativo para adultos da região Nordeste do Brasil, com o fim de identificar a frequência de consumo de alimentos considerados de proteção e risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), agrupando os itens alimentares por nível de processamento. MÉTODOS Para desenvolver o QFA foram utilizados dados de 7.516 adultos do Nordeste do Brasil, extraídos da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008–2009. As listas de alimentos foram elaboradas segundo a metodologia da contribuição relativa do item, nas quais foram identificados os itens alimentares com maior contribuição relativa para macronutrientes, fibra, gordura saturada, gordura trans, sódio e potássio. Tais listas foram compostas de todos os alimentos cujo somatório de contribuição foi de até 90%. Na estrutura final do QFA, os itens alimentares foram organizados de modo a respeitar a imagem mental das refeições. RESULTADOS O QFA resultou em 83 itens alimentares, distribuídos em minimamente processados, processados e ultraprocessados. O ano anterior foi escolhido como tempo para estimar o consumo dos alimentos, e as opções de frequência variaram de “nunca” até “10 vezes”. O instrumento inclui orientações para preenchimento e colhe dados sobre o tamanho das porções (pequena, média, grande e extragrande), bem como informações complementares sobre as preparações culinárias. Registrou-se um percentual elevado de pessoas com excesso de peso (44,1%). CONCLUSÃO O estudo culminou em um QFA para identificar a frequência de consumo de alimentos considerados de proteção e risco para DCNT. O instrumento pode subsidiar estudos epidemiológicos que avaliem desfechos relacionados à dieta de adultos considerando o nível de processamento de alimentos, em consonância com o Guia alimentar para a população brasileira .

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for adults in the Northeast region of Brazil, in order to identify the frequency of consumption of foods considered to be of protection and risk for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), grouping food items by processing level. METHODS To develop the FFQ, data from 7,516 adults from Northeastern Brazil were used, extracted from the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey. The food lists were elaborated according to the methodology of the relative contribution of each item, identifying foods with the highest relative contribution for macronutrients, fiber, saturated fat, trans fat, sodium and potassium. All foods whose contribution sum was up to 90% composed such lists. The final structure of the FFQ organized the food items in order to respect the mental image of the meals. RESULT The FFQ resulted in 83 food items, distributed in minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed. We chose the previous year as the time to estimate food consumption, and frequency options ranged from “never” to “10 times”. The instrument includes guidelines for filling and collects data on serving sizes (small, medium, large and extra-large), as well as additional information on culinary preparations. There was a high percentage of people who were overweight (44.1%). CONCLUSION The study culminated in an FFQ to identify the frequency of consumption of foods considered protective and risk for NCDs. The instrument can support epidemiological studies that evaluate outcomes related to the diet of adults considering the level of food processing, in accordance with the Guia alimentar para a população brasileira .
  • Two validity evidences of the ESQUADA and Brazilians’ dietary quality levels Original Articles

    Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Araújo, Pedro Henrique de Moura; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg de; Slater, Betzabeth

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar duas evidências de validade da escala de qualidade da dieta (ESQUADA) para seleção dos itens com melhor discriminação da qualidade da dieta dos brasileiros e propor uma descrição em níveis de escore. MÉTODOS Adolescentes e adultos brasileiros e residentes no país (n = 2.059), responderam a um questionário on-line com 52 itens, compartilhado em redes sociais e listas de correio eletrônico entre março e abril de 2018. Foram aplicados testes estatísticos para análise de evidências de validade e confiabilidade do instrumento. A análise fatorial foi aplicada para estudo da dimensionalidade dos itens do questionário. A teoria de resposta ao item foi aplicada para identificar a discriminação e localização dos itens no continuum , construir a escala e avaliar o comportamento diferencial dos itens quanto ao sexo e idade. RESULTADOS Dentre os 52 itens do questionário, 25 apresentaram maior precisão de medida, com ajuste e confiabilidade adequados. O item sobre o costume de comer alimentos ultraprocessados em casa apresentou a melhor discriminação da qualidade da dieta. Nenhum item apresentou comportamento diferencial quanto a sexo e idade. Na construção da ESQUADA foram identificados cinco níveis de qualidade da dieta: “muito ruim”, “ruim”, “boa”, “muito boa” e “excelente”. Observou-se que enquanto cereais matinais e/ou barrinhas de cereais são consumidos com maior frequência por indivíduos com qualidade da dieta “muito ruim”; castanhas e/ou nozes são consumidos mais frequentemente por aqueles indivíduos com qualidade da dieta “excelente”. CONCLUSÕES A ESQUADA é composta por 25 itens precisos e sem comportamento diferencial para avaliar a qualidade da dieta dos brasileiros. A construção da ESQUADA possibilitou reconhecer consumo e práticas alimentares característicos de cada nível de qualidade da dieta.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Assess two validity evidences of the diet quality scale (ESQUADA) for the selection of items with better discrimination of the Brazilians’ diet quality and propose a description in score levels. METHODS Brazilian adolescents and adults residing in the country (n = 2,059) answered an online questionnaire with 52 items, shared on social networks and email lists between March and April 2018. Statistical tests were applied to analyze the validity and reliability of the instrument’s evidence. Factor analysis was applied to study the dimensionality of the questionnaire items. Item response theory was applied to identify the discrimination and location of items on the continuum, construct the scale and assess the differential item functioning in terms of sex and age. RESULTS Among the 52 items of the questionnaire, 25 had greater measurement accuracy, with adequate adjustment and reliability. The item on the habit of eating ultra-processed foods at home showed the best discrimination of diet quality. No item showed differential functioning regarding sex and age. In the construction of the ESQUADA, five diet quality levels were identified: very poor, poor, good, very good and excellent. It was observed that while breakfast cereals and/or cereal bars are more frequently consumed by individuals with “very poor” diet quality; nuts and/or walnuts are most often consumed by those individuals with “excellent” diet quality. CONCLUSION The ESQUADA consists of 25 precise items with no differential functioning to assess the quality of Brazilians’ diet. The construction of the ESQUADA made it possible to recognize food consumption and dietary practices characteristic of each level of diet quality.
  • Public expenditure on hospitalizations for COVID-19 treatment in 2020, in Brazil Original Articles

    Santos, Hebert Luan Pereira Campos dos; Maciel, Fernanda Beatriz Melo; Santos Junior, Geovani Moreno; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Prado, Nília Maria de Brito Lima

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever os gastos decorrentes das internações para tratamento clínico de usuários diagnosticados com Covid-19 no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) entre fevereiro e dezembro de 2020. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo, elaborado a partir de dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares sobre gastos governamentais com internações hospitalares para tratamento clínico de usuários diagnosticados com Covid-19 e das causas incluídas nos capítulos do CID-10. Obteve-se o número de internações, tempo médio de permanência, taxa de letalidade e os gastos totais considerando serviços hospitalares, serviços profissionais e gasto médio por internação. RESULTADOS No período avaliado, ocorreram 462.149 internações hospitalares no SUS, sendo 4,9% delas para tratamento de usuários com coronavírus. O gasto total foi superior a 2,2 bilhões de reais, sendo 85% destinados a serviços hospitalares e 15% a serviços profissionais. Os gastos para o tratamento da covid-19 se distribuíram de forma distinta entre as regiões do país. A região Sudeste teve o maior número de internações, maior valor total gasto, maior média de permanência em dias e maior taxa de letalidade, enquanto a região Sul registrou maior porcentagem de gastos com hospitais sem fins lucrativos (58%) e hospitais empresariais (15%). CONCLUSÕES As internações para tratamento clínico da infecção pelo coronavírus foram mais onerosas se comparadas às internações para tratamento de insuficiências respiratórias agudas e pneumonias ou influenza. Os resultados demonstraram as disparidades frente aos gastos de internação para procedimentos similares entre as regiões do país, evidenciando a vulnerabilidade e a necessidade de estratégias para diminuir as diferenças no acesso, uso e distribuição de recursos do SUS, garantindo equanimidade, e considerando as injustas desigualdades entre as regiões do país.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe the expenditure resulting from hospitalizations for clinical treatment of users diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Unified Health System (SUS) between February and December 2020. METHODS This is a descriptive study based on data from the Hospital Information System about government expenditure on hospitalizations for clinical treatment of users diagnosed with COVID-19 and causes included in the ICD-10 chapters. We obtained the number of hospitalizations, average length of stay, lethality rate, and total expenditure considering hospital services, professional services and average expenditure per hospitalization. RESULTS In the period evaluated, SUS registered 462,149 hospitalizations, 4.9% of them for COVID-19 treatment. Total expenditure exceeded R$ 2.2 billion, with 85% allocated to hospital services and 15% to professional services. Expenditure for treating COVID-19 was distributed differently between the country’s regions. The Southeast region had the highest number of hospitalizations, highest total amount spent, highest average length of stay in days, and highest lethality rate; the South region, in turn, recorded the highest percentage of spending on non-profit hospitals (58%) and corporate hospitals (15%). CONCLUSIONS Hospitalizations for clinical treatment of coronavirus infection were more costly compared to those for treatment of acute respiratory failure and pneumonia or influenza. Our results show the disparities in hospitalization expenditure for similar procedures between the regions of Brazil, underlining the vulnerability and the need for strategies to reduce the differences in access, use, and distribution of SUS resources, ensuring equanimity, and considering the unfair inequalities between the country’s regions.
  • Evolution of care during pregnancy and childbirth in the extreme south of Brazil Original Articles

    Cesar, Juraci A.; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul A.; Marmitt, Luana P.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever a evolução da assistência à gestação e ao parto entre puérperas residentes no município de Rio Grande (RS) utilizando dados de inquéritos realizados a cada três anos, entre 2007 e 2019. MÉTODOS Em até 48 horas após o parto foi aplicado questionário único, padronizado, a todas as mães que tiveram filhos nos hospitais locais e cumpriram os critérios de inclusão. Foram investigadas características demográficas e reprodutivas, hábitos de vida, nível socioeconômico da família e cuidados recebidos durante a gestação e o parto. Na análise, utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado de tendência linear para avaliar a distribuição dos indicadores por inquérito. RESULTADOS Ao todo, 12.645 parturientes foram entrevistadas (98% do total de mulheres aptas a participar da pesquisa). No período avaliado, a proporção de partos caiu 35% entre adolescentes e aumentou 25% entre mulheres com 35 anos ou mais. As mães ganharam, em média, dois anos de escolaridade, e suas famílias tiveram importante melhora econômica, seguida, porém, de perda de renda no último inquérito. O tabagismo materno, antes e durante a gravidez, caiu à metade. Houve aumento na taxa de mães que iniciaram o pré-natal no primeiro trimestre, e aumentou também o número de consultas e de testes laboratoriais. Quase 60% das consultas de pré-natal e 80% dos partos ocorreram no Sistema Único de Saúde. Em 2019, o parto vaginal voltou a ser o mais comum. As taxas de baixo peso ao nascer (9%) e prematuridade (17%) praticamente não se modificaram. CONCLUSÕES Houve mudança importante no perfil reprodutivo e aumento da cobertura de diversos serviços de assistência pré-natal e parto. As crianças seguem nascendo bem, mas o baixo peso ao nascer e a prematuridade continuam endêmicos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To describe the evolution of care during pregnancy and childbirth among postpartum women living in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil, using data from surveys carried out every three years between 2007 and 2019. METHODS Within 48 hours after delivery, a single, standardized questionnaire was applied to all mothers who had children in local hospitals and met the inclusion criteria. Demographic and reproductive characteristics, lifestyle habits, socioeconomic level of the family, and care received during pregnancy and childbirth were investigated. In the analysis, the chi-square test for linear trend was used to assess the distribution of indicators per survey. RESULTS A total of 12,645 parturients were interviewed (98% of the women eligible to participate in the surveys). In the period evaluated, the proportion of births fell 35% among adolescents and increased 25% among women aged 35 years and over. Mothers gained, on average, two years of schooling, and their families experienced an important economic improvement, followed by loss of income in the last survey. Maternal smoking, before and during pregnancy, fell by half. The rate of mothers who started prenatal care in the first trimester and the number of consultations and laboratory tests increased. Almost 60% of prenatal consultations and 80% of births took place in the Brazilian Unified Health System. In 2019, vaginal delivery was once again the most common. The rates of low birth weight (9%) and prematurity (17%) virtually remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS We found an important change in the reproductive profile and increased coverage of various prenatal care and delivery services. Children continue to be born well, but low birth weight and prematurity remain endemic.
  • What, what for and how? Developing measurement instruments in epidemiology Original Articles

    Reichenheim, Michael; Bastos, João Luiz

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Embora fundamental para a pesquisa epidemiológica, o desenvolvimento e a adaptação transcultural de instrumentos de aferição têm recebido menos destaque nas discussões metodológicas que permeiam o campo. Em paralelo, a qualidade das mensurações realizadas em muitos estudos epidemiológicos está frequentemente aquém do desejado para a construção de conhecimento sólido sobre o processo saúde-doença. A escassez de sistematizações sobre o que, para que e como aferir na área provavelmente contribui para esse cenário. Nesta revisão, propomos um modelo processual composto por uma sequência de etapas voltadas à mensuração de construtos em níveis aceitáveis de validade, confiabilidade e, por extensão, comparabilidade. Subjaz à proposta a ideia de que não apenas alguns, mas diversos estudos concatenados entre si e sucessivamente mais aprofundados devem ser conduzidos para obter aferições adequadas. A implementação do modelo poderá contribuir para alargar o interesse sobre instrumentos de aferição e, especialmente, para enfrentar os problemas investigados em epidemiologia.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The development and cross-cultural adaptation of measurement instruments have received less attention in methodological discussions, even though it is essential for epidemiological research. At the same time, the quality of epidemiological measurements is often below ideal standards for the construction of solid knowledge on the health-disease process. The scarcity of systematizations in the field about what, what for, and how to adequately measure intangible constructs contributes to this scenario. In this review, we propose a procedural model divided into phases and stages aimed at measuring constructs at acceptable levels of validity, reliability, and comparability. Underlying our proposal is the idea that not only some but several connected studies should be conducted to obtain appropriate measurement instruments. Implementing the model may contribute to broadening the interest in measurement instruments and, especially, addressing key epidemiological problems.
  • Impact of nonpharmaceutical strategies on trends of COVID-19 in São Paulo State Brief Communications

    Fortaleza, Cristiane Ravagnani; Vilches, Thomas Nogueira; Almeida, Gabriel Berg de; Ferreira, Claudia Pio; Souza, Lenice do Rosário de; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Interrupted time series analyses were conducted to measure the impact of social distancing policies (instituted on March 22, 2020) and of subsequent mandatory masking in the community (instituted on May 4, 2020) on the incidence and effective reproductive number of COVID-19 in São Paulo State, Brazil. Overall, the impact of social distancing both on incidence and Rt was greater than the incremental effect of mandatory masking. Those findings may reflect either a small impact of face masking or the loosening of social distancing after mandatory use of masks.
  • Consumption of ultra-processed foods and its association with sociodemographic factors in the adult population of the 27 Brazilian state capitals (2019) Original Articles

    Costa, Caroline dos Santos; Sattamini, Isabela Fleury; Steele, Eurídice Martinez; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever a magnitude do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados na população adulta (≥ 18 anos) das capitais das 27 unidades federativas do Brasil e sua associação com variáveis sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS Os dados utilizados neste estudo provêm dos participantes (n = 52.443) da onda 2019 do inquérito anual do “Sistema nacional de vigilância de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas por inquérito telefônico” (Vigitel). O consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados foi descrito com base em escore correspondente à somatória de respostas positivas para questões sobre o consumo no dia anterior de treze subgrupos de alimentos ultraprocessados frequentemente consumidos no Brasil. Modelos de regressão de Poisson foram utilizados para descrever as associações bruta e ajustada do alto consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados (escores ≥ 5) com sexo, faixa etária e nível de escolaridade. RESULTADOS A frequência de alto consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados foi 18,2% (IC95% 17,4–19,0). Com ou sem o ajuste para as demais variáveis sociodemográficas, essa frequência foi significativamente menor no sexo feminino e diminuiu linearmente com a idade. Na análise bruta, evidenciou-se aumento na frequência de alto consumo do nível inferior para o nível intermediário de escolaridade e diminuição desse consumo do nível intermediário para o superior. Na análise ajustada por sexo e idade, a frequência de alto consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados foi significativamente menor no nível superior de escolaridade (12 ou mais anos de estudo), não havendo diferenças entre os demais níveis. CONCLUSÃO Alimentos ultraprocessados são consumidos com alta frequência na população brasileira adulta das 27 capitais da federação. Pertencer ao sexo masculino, ser mais jovem e ter escolaridade inferior à universitária são condições que aumentam, de forma independente, o consumo desses alimentos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the magnitude of consumption of ultra-processed foods in the adult population (≥ 18 years old) in the capitals of the 27 federative units of Brazil, as well as its association with sociodemographic variables. METHODS Data used in this study stem from participants (n = 52,443) of the 2019 wave of the annual survey of the “National surveillance system for risk and protective factors for chronic diseases by telephone survey” (Vigitel). The consumption of ultra-processed foods was described based on a score, corresponding to the sum of positive responses to questions about consumption on the previous day of thirteen subgroups of ultra-processed foods frequently consumed in Brazil. Poisson regression models were used to describe the crude and adjusted associations between high consumption of ultra-processed foods (scores ≥ 5) and sex, age group, and level of education. RESULTS The frequency of high consumption of ultra-processed foods was 18.2% (95% CI 17.4–19.0). With or without adjustment for other sociodemographic variables, this frequency was significantly lower in females and decreased linearly with age. In the crude analysis, there was an increase in the frequency of high consumption from the lower level to the intermediate level of education and a decrease in this consumption from the intermediate level to the upper level. In the analysis adjusted for sex and age, the frequency of high consumption of ultra-processed foods was significantly lower at the higher level of education (12 or more years of study), with no differences between the other levels. CONCLUSION Ultra-processed foods are consumed with high frequency in the adult Brazilian population in the 27 capitals of the federation. Being male, younger and having less education than university are conditions that increase, independently, the consumption of these foods.
  • Effectiveness of screening for tuberculosis in HIV: a pragmatic clinical trial Original Articles

    Santos, Marcela Lopes; Batista, Joanna d’Arc Lyra; Braga, Cynthia; Silva, Adriana Paula da; Maruza, Magda; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Carvalho, Maria Rosimery de; Siqueira-Filha, Noemia Teixeira de; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To verify the effectiveness of screening for tuberculosis (TB) on all-cause mortality and tuberculosis cases in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients through a clinical algorithm based on recommendations of the World Health Organization. METHODS: From March 2014 to April 2016, a pragmatic randomized clinical trial was conducted with newly diagnosed and TB-free HIV-infected adults undergoing antiretroviral therapy for up to one month at a major tertiary hospital for HIV in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups using an automatically-generated random list, and followed-up for at least 6 months. The intervention group was screened for TB at hospital admission and at every follow-up visit through a series of questions addressing TB-related symptoms (cough, fever, night sweating, and weight loss). Patients presenting with any of these symptoms were referred to a pulmonologist and underwent sputum smear microscopy, sputum culture, and rapid molecular testing (GeneXpert). When at least one test result came back positive, TB treatment was initiated. In turn, if patients tested negative but presented with severe clinal symptoms, TB preventive treatment was initiated. Screening for TB was not performed systematically in the control group. The primary outcome assessed in this study was death from all causes, and secondary outcomes included sensitivity and specificity of this screening test, as well as its detection time. RESULTS: This study evaluated 581 patients, 377 in the intervention group (64.9%) and 204 in the control group (35.1%). In total, 36 patients died during the follow-up period. Of these, 26 (6.9%) were from the intervention group, reaching a cumulative mortality coefficient of 69 per 1,000 inhabitants, and 10 (4.9%) from the control group (p = 0.341), with a cumulative mortality coefficient of 49 per 1,000 inhabitants (p = 0.341).
  • Skills and practices of pharmacy staff for dispensing of drugs with fiscalized substances in drugstores and pharmacies Original Articles

    Ceballos, Mauricio; Llano, Yaqueline; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Madrigal-Cadavid, Juliana; Pino-Marín, Daniel; Amariles, Pedro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To evaluate the skills and practices of pharmacy staff during the dispensing of tramadol (drug with fiscalized substance) in drugstores and pharmacies in Medellin, Colombia. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed. The simulated patient technique was used. The main outcomes included the information provided on the dispensed drug (tramadol), the use of tools to provide information, and the information provided on drug precautions and use recommendations. RESULTS We visited 305 drugstores and pharmacies. The average dispensing time was 2.3 min (SD 1.1 min). In nine drugstores and pharmacies (3.0%), tramadol was not dispensed because it was not in stock. In 17 drugstores and pharmacies (5.7%), the simulated patients were actively informed by the dispensing pharmacy staff; of these, 16 provided oral information and one provided oral and written information. Eight patients (2.7%) received information regarding tramadol use. However, 99% of patients were not informed about tramadol side effects such as dependence, sedation, or hypnosis, and none of the simulated female patients were informed on the precautions related to tramadol use during pregnancy or lactation. CONCLUSIONS Communication skills and appropriate practices of pharmacy staff are critical to patient self-care. However, this study shows their difficulty in counseling about precautions and use recommendations of drugs with fiscalized substances. These outcomes could inform future studies focusing on the rational use of these drugs in drugstores and pharmacies. It is necessary to improve the pharmacy staff competencies through continuing education programs, to facilitate access to information and training.
  • COVID-19 and social distancing among children and adolescents in Brazil Original Articles

    Barros, Fernando C; Hartwig, Fernando P; Barros, Aluísio J D; Menezes, Ana M B; Horta, Bernardo L; Struchiner, Cláudio J; Vidaletti, Luis Paulo; Silveira, Mariangela F; Mesenburg, Marilia A; Delagostin, Odir A; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the adherence to measures of social distancing in children and adolescents studied in three national surveys conducted in Brazil between May–June 2020. METHODS Three national serological surveys were conducted in 133 sentinel cities located in all 27 Federative Units. Multistage probability sampling was used to select 250 individuals per city. The total sample size in age ranges 0–9 and 10–19 years old are of 4,263 and 8,024 individuals, respectively. Information on children or adolescents was gathered with a data collection app, and a rapid point-of-case test for SARS-CoV-2 was conducted on a finger prick blood sample. RESULTS The adjusted prevalence of antibodies was 2.9% (2.2–3.6) among children 0–9 years, 2.2% (1.8–2.6) among adolescents 10-19 years, and 3.0% (2.7–3.3) among adults 20+years. Prevalence of antibodies was higher among poor children and adolescents compared to those of rich families. Adherence to social distancing measures was seen in 72.4% (71.9–73.8) of families with children, 60.8% (59.6–61.9) for adolescents, and 57.4% (56.9–57.8) for adults. For not leaving the house except for essential matters the proportions were 81.7% (80.5–82.9), 70.6% (69.6–61.9), and 65.1% (64.7–65.5), respectively. Among children and adolescents, social distancing was strongly associated with socioeconomic status, being much higher in the better-off families. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 showed comparable levels among children, adolescents, and adults. Adherence to social distancing measures was more prevalent in children, followed by adolescents. There were important socioeconomic differences in the adherence to social distancing among children and adolescents.
  • Influence of center-based child care on development of two-year-olds in a Brazilian cohort Original Articles

    Leão, Otávio Amaral de Andrade; Mielke, Gregore Iven; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas da; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Murray, Joseph; Neumann, Nelson Arns; Dalabona, Caroline Caus; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between child care attendance since birth and development in two-years-old Brazilian children. METHODS The study used longitudinal data from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The childhood development (cognitive, fine and gross motor skills, and language) at two-years-old children was assessed using INTER-NDA (INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment). The child care attendance was measured at ages one and two years and categorized as: a) never attended child care; b) attended some child care (one or two years); and c) always attended child care (one and two years). Demographic, socioeconomic, health, and child stimulation variables were considered as confounders. Crude and adjusted analyses of child care attendance and development were carried out using linear regression. RESULTS Out of the 3,870 infants included in the analyses, around 1/3 attended center-based child care. In crude analyses, attending center-based child care was associated with positive developmental outcomes, except in motor domains. In adjusted analyses, compared to those children that have never attended child care, children who did attend presented higher scores for cognitive development (always in child care: β: 2.44, 95%CI: 0.83–4.05; some child care: β: 1.35, 95%CI: 0.17–2.53). CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that center-based child care may help improve child cognitive development in the Brazilian context. Furthermore, the association was higher for early and continued attendance. Considering the low prevalence of children in external care, it is recommended to improve child care opportunities in early childhood.
  • Estimation of chronic dietary intake of pesticide residues Original Articles

    Marques, Jacqueline Mary Gerage; Silva, Marina Vieira da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a ingestão diária máxima teórica dos agrotóxicos potencialmente consumidos, de forma crônica, pela população brasileira. MÉTODO Utilizando os dados do bloco de consumo alimentar da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2008–2009 para caracterização da dieta da população, foi construído um banco de dados agrupando os alimentos com base na classificação NOVA. Considerando os valores de limite máximo de resíduos de cada agrotóxico autorizado no país até o ano de 2016, foram somados os limites de todos os alimentos consumidos, multiplicados pela quantidade consumida, gerando o índice de ingestão teórica máxima, que foi comparado com a ingestão diária aceitável. RESULTADOS Os resultados mostram que dos 283 agrotóxicos considerados no banco de dados, 71 compostos tiveram estimativas de ingestão zero (25%), 144 compostos (50,8%) atingiram aos valores de ingestão diária aceitável e 68 compostos (24%) apresentaram mediana de ingestão que excedeu o valor diário aceitável. Quando realizada a estimativa de ingestão de agrotóxicos discriminando as distintas regiões do país, houve variação (entre 48 e 69 substâncias) na quantidade de compostos que excederam a ingestão diária aceitável devido aos diferentes padrões de consumo da população. As categorias dos produtos que mais excederam as estimativas são inseticidas, herbicidas e fungicidas. CONCLUSÃO A aplicação dessa metodologia é válida para o primeiro passo na avaliação de risco, porém os valores resultantes podem ser diferentes da exposição real por não englobar outros fatores, como o uso combinado de agrotóxicos ou de produtos de uso não autorizado. É ressaltada a importância do desenvolvimento de pesquisas de dados específicos de consumo de alimentos nacionais de forma sistemática, gerando dados e análises que viabilizem uma avaliação pormenorizada sobre riscos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the maximum theoretical daily intake of pesticides potentially consumed, chronically, by the Brazilian population. METHOD By using data from the food consumption section of the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey to characterize the population diet, a database was built to group the foods based on the NOVA classification. Considering the maximum residue limit values of each pesticide authorized in the country until 2016, the limits of all consumed foods were added and multiplied by the amount consumed, resulting in the maximum theoretical intake index, which was compared with the acceptable daily intake. RESULTS The results show that, of the 283 pesticides considered in the database, 71 (25%) compounds had estimates of zero intake, 144 compounds (50.8%) reached acceptable daily intake values and 68 compounds (24%) showed median intake that exceeded the acceptable daily value. The pesticide intake estimation according to the different regions of the country showed a variation in the amount of compounds that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (48 to 69 substances) due to the different consumption patterns. The categories of products that most exceeded the limits were the insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. CONCLUSION The application of this methodology is valid for the first step in risk assessment, but the resulting values may be different from the actual exposure since they do not include other factors, such as the combined use of pesticides or unauthorized products. The importance of developing research on specific national food consumption data in a systematic way is emphasized, which generates data and analyses that allow a detailed risk assessment.
  • Surveillance of hemorrhagic fever and/or neuroinvasive disease: challenges of diagnosis Original Articles

    Araújo, Leonardo José Tadeu de; Gonzalez, Lorenzo Lang; Buss, Lewis Fletcher; Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Gomez, David Salas; Ferreira, Camila Santos da Silva; Cirqueira, Cinthya Santos; Ghillardi, Fábio; Witkin, Steven S.; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of post mortem laboratory analysis in identifying the causes of hemorrhagic fever and/or neuroinvasive disease in deaths by arbovirus infection. METHODS Retrospective cross-sectional study based on the differential analysis and final outcome obtained in patients whose samples underwent laboratory testing for arboviruses at the Pathology Center of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS Of the 1355 adults clinically diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever and/or neuroinvasive disease, the most commonly attributed cause of death and the most common final outcome was dengue fever. Almost half of the samples tested negative on all laboratory tests conducted. CONCLUSION The failure to identify the causative agent in a great number of cases highlights a gap in the diagnosis of deaths of unknown etiology. Additional immunohistochemical and molecular assessments need to be added to the post-mortem protocol if all laboratory evaluations performed fail to identify a causative agent. While part of our findings may be due to technical issues related to sample fixation, better information availability when making the initial diagnosis is crucial. Including molecular approaches might lead to a significant advancement in diagnostic accuracy.
  • Improvement of quality of care for gestational syphilis in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro Original Articles

    Cerqueira, Brena Gabriella Tostes de; Silva, Eliane Pereira da; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o efeito de uma intervenção multifacetada no cuidado das gestantes com sífilis na atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Trata-se de projeto de melhoria da qualidade realizado em 26 unidades básicas de saúde do município do Rio de Janeiro, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. O desenho foi quase-experimental misto, com análises anteriores, posteriores e de série temporal. Avaliou-se o cuidado prestado a todas as gestantes com sífilis e pré-natal encerrado no período, mediante dez critérios de qualidade e um indicador. A intervenção foi multifacetada, abrangendo educação permanente, melhoria dos registros e sistemas de informação, auditoria e feedback, educação do paciente, mudanças organizacionais e nos processos de trabalho. Estimaram-se as melhorias absoluta e relativa dos critérios e sua significância estatística (α = 5%). Os facilitadores e dificultadores da intervenção foram analisados segundo o Model for Understanding Success in Quality. RESULTADOS Após a intervenção, observou-se melhoria absoluta total de 6,7% (64,4% versus 71,0%) e relativa de 28,8% (p > 0,05). Oito dos dez critérios de qualidade tiveram melhoria, sendo esta significativa em quatro deles (p < 0,05). O indicador mensal de tratamento adequado também melhorou (p < 0,05), porém manteve baixo desempenho em todo o projeto. Destacou-se positivamente o aumento da conformidade do esquema de tratamento com o protocolo (91,4% versus 99,1%), porém as principais oportunidades de melhoria foram a testagem (42,8% versus 48,5%) e o tratamento das parcerias sexuais (42,8% versus 44,2%). Pressões regulatórias para melhorar o indicador mensal e a crise político-econômica vivenciada pelo município modularam o efeito da intervenção. CONCLUSÃO O projeto foi útil para identificar prioridades e orientar intervenções para a melhoria da qualidade da assistência à sífilis, embora ainda exista ampla margem para avanços. Os problemas identificados, bem como os moduladores contextuais do efeito, devem ser considerados em futuras intervenções.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of a multifaceted intervention in the care of pregnant women with syphilis in primary health care. METHODS This is a quality improvement project performed in 26 basic care units in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, between January and December 2017. It has a quasi-experimental mixed design, with previous, later and time series analyses. We evaluated the care provided to all pregnant women with syphilis whose prenatal care that ended during the studied period, using ten quality criteria and one indicator. The intervention was multifaceted, covering permanent education, improvement of records and information systems, audit and feedback, patient education, organizational changes and work processes. We estimated absolute and relative improvements of the criteria and their statistical significance (α = 5%). The facilitators and hinders of the intervention were analyzed according to the Model for Understanding Success in Quality. RESULTS After the intervention, there was a total absolute improvement of 6.7% (64.4% versus 71.0%) and relative of 28.8% (p > 0.05). Eight of the ten quality criteria had an improvement, which was significant in four of them (p < 0.05). The monthly indicator of adequate treatment also improved (p < 0.05), but maintained low performance throughout the project. The increase in the compliance of the treatment scheme with the protocol (91.4% versus 99.1%) positively stood out, but the main opportunities for improvement were testing (42.8% versus 48.5%) and treatment of sexual partnerships (42.8% versus 44.2%). Regulatory pressures to improve the monthly indicator and the political-economic crisis experienced by the municipality modulated the effect of the intervention. CONCLUSION The project was useful to identify priorities and guide interventions to improve the quality of care for syphilis, although there is still ample room for improvement. The identified problems, as well as the contextual modulators of the effect, should be considered in future interventions.
  • Prediction of absenteeism in public schools teachers with machine learning Original Articles

    Fernandes, Fernando Timoteo; Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Predizer o risco de ausência laboral decorrente de morbidades dos docentes que atuam na educação infantil na rede pública municipal, com o uso de algoritmos de machine learning. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo transversal utilizando dados secundários, públicos e anônimos da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais, selecionando professores da educação infantil que atuaram na rede pública municipal do estado de São Paulo entre 2014 e 2018 (n = 174.294). Foram também vinculados dados da média de alunos por turma e número de habitantes no município. Os dados foram separados em treinamento e teste, utilizando os registros de 2014 a 2016 (n = 103.357) para treinar cinco modelos preditivos e os dados de 2017 a 2018 (n = 70.937) para testar seus desempenhos em dados novos. A performance preditiva dos algoritmos foi avaliada por meio do valor da área abaixo da curva ROC (AUROC). RESULTADOS Todos os cinco algoritmos testados apresentaram área abaixo da curva acima de 0,76. O algoritmo com melhor performance preditiva (redes neurais artificiais) obteve 0,79 de área abaixo da curva, com acurácia de 71,52%, sensibilidade de 72,86%, especificidade de 70,52% e kappa de 0,427 nos dados de teste. CONCLUSÃO É possível predizer casos de afastamentos por morbidade em docentes da rede pública com machine learning usando dados públicos. O melhor algoritmo apresentou melhor resultado da área abaixo da curva quando comparado ao modelo de referência (regressão logística). Os algoritmos podem contribuir para predições mais assertivas na área da saúde pública e da saúde do trabalhador, permitindo acompanhar e ajudar a prevenir afastamentos por morbidade desses trabalhadores.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To predict the risk of absence from work due to morbidities of teachers working in early childhood education in the municipal public schools, using machine learning algorithms. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study using secondary, public and anonymous data from the Relação Anual de Informações Sociais, selecting early childhood education teachers who worked in the municipal public schools of the state of São Paulo between 2014 and 2018 (n = 174,294). Data on the average number of students per class and number of inhabitants in the municipality were also linked. The data were separated into training and testing, using records from 2014 to 2016 (n = 103,357) to train five predictive models, and data from 2017 to 2018 (n = 70,937) to test their performance in new data. The predictive performance of the algorithms was evaluated using the value of the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). RESULTS All five algorithms tested showed an area under the curve above 0.76. The algorithm with the best predictive performance (artificial neural networks) achieved 0.79 of area under the curve, with accuracy of 71.52%, sensitivity of 72.86%, specificity of 70.52%, and kappa of 0.427 in the test data. CONCLUSION It is possible to predict cases of sickness absence in teachers of public schools with machine learning using public data. The best algorithm showed a better result of the area under the curve when compared with the reference model (logistic regression). The algorithms can contribute to more assertive predictions in the public health and worker health areas, allowing to monitor and help prevent the absence of these workers due to morbidity.
  • COVID-19 and mental health of pregnant women in Ceará, Brazil Original Articles

    Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Castro, Marcia C.; Sampaio, Edgar Gomes Marques; Oliveira, Francisco Ariclene; Silva, Jordan Prazeres Freitas da; Aquino, Camila Machado de; Sousa, Liduina de Albuquerque Rocha de; Carvalho, Francisco Herlanio Costa; Altafim, Elisa Rachel Pisani; Correia, Luciano Lima

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the perceptions of pregnant women about COVID-19 and the prevalence of common mental disorders during the implemented social distancing period. METHODS This was an observational, cross-sectional study using digital media, of pregnant women exposed to social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Common mental disorders were estimated using the modified Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) scale, and the feelings towards COVID-19 were assessed using the Fear of COVID-19 scale through telephone calls made in May 2020. COX multivariate regression models were used to verify the associations. RESULTS Of the 1,041 pregnant women, 45.7% (95%CI: 42.7–48.8) had common mental disorders (CMD). All items of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale showed a significant association with the prevalence of CMD (p < 0.001). A CMD risk gradient was observed, going from a prevalence ratio of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.13–2.04) in pregnant women with two positive items to 2.70 (95%CI: 2.08–3.51) for those with four positive items. Early gestational age and the lack of prenatal care were also associated with CMD. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women was high during the period of social distancing and was aggravated by negative feelings towards COVID-19.
  • Chronic non-communicable diseases and COVID-19: EPICOVID-19 Brazil results Original Articles

    Mesenburg, Marilia Arndt; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Barros, Aluísio J D; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Barros, Fernando Celso de; Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Jacques, Nadège; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever a prevalência de doenças crônicas e fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos associados, avaliar os padrões de distanciamento social e a prevalência de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 e sintomas de covid-19 em portadores e não portadores de doenças crônicas. MÉTODOS Foram avaliados dados de 77.075 mil indivíduos de 20 a 59 anos de três etapas do inquérito sorológico de abrangência nacional Epicovid-19 Brasil, realizadas entre maio e junho de 2021. A presença de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 foi avaliada por teste rápido. Foram investigadas as prevalências autorreferidas de hipertensão, diabetes, asma, câncer, doença renal crônica e doença cardíaca. A prevalência de uso de máscara, de adesão a medidas de isolamento e de anticorpos foi avaliada separadamente entre portadores e não portadores de doenças crônicas. A prevalência de sintomas foi avaliada entre doentes crônicos e não doentes portadores de anticorpos. RESULTADOS A prevalência do pelo menos uma doença crônica foi de 43%, maior na região Sudeste, entre indivíduos brancos e indígenas, mulheres, menos escolarizados e em menor posição socioeconômica. O uso de máscara ao sair do domicílio não diferiu entre doentes crônicos e não doentes (98%). A proporção de participantes que referiram adesão ao isolamento foi maior entre doentes crônicos (15,9%) que entre não doentes (24,9%). A prevalência de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 foi semelhante entre doentes crônicos e não doentes (2,4% e 2,3%). A prevalência de tosse, dispneia, palpitações e mialgia foi significativamente maior entre doentes crônicos, mas a proporção de sintomáticos não diferiu entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO A prevalência de doenças crônicas no país é alta e a pandemia de covid-19 atinge de forma semelhante doentes e não doentes. Doentes crônicos apresentam formas mais graves de covid-19 e maior prevalência de sintomas. A maior adesão às medidas de distanciamento social entre doentes crônicos não se reflete em menor incidência de covid-19 nesse grupo.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describing the prevalence of chronic diseases and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors, evaluating the patterns of social distancing and the antibodies prevalence against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 symptoms in carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases. METHODS Data from 77,075 individuals aged 20 to 59 from three steps of the EPICOVID-19 Brazil (a nationwide serological survey conducted between May and June, 2021) were assessed. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was examined by rapid tests. Self-reported prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, asthma, cancer, chronic kidney disease and heart disease were investigated. The prevalence of mask use, adherence to isolation measures and antibodies were evaluated separately amid carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases. The prevalence of symptoms was analyzed among carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases with antibodies. RESULTS The prevalence of at least one chronic disease was 43%, higher in the Southeast region, among white and indigenous individuals, women, less schooled and in lower socioeconomic position. The use of masks when leaving home was similar among carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases (98%). The proportion of participants who reported adherence to isolation measures was higher amid carriers (15.9%) than non-carriers (24.9%) of chronic diseases. The prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was similar amongst carriers and non-carriers (2.4% and 2.3%). The prevalence of cough, dyspnea, palpitations and myalgia was significantly higher among carriers, but the proportion of symptomatic patients was similar between groups. CONCLUSION The prevalence of chronic diseases in Brazil is high and the COVID-19 pandemic affects carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases similarly. Carriers present more severe forms of COVID-19 and higher prevalence of symptoms. Greater adherence to social distancing measures among chronic patients is disassociated from a lower incidence of COVID-19 in this group.
  • COVID-19 in northeast Brazil: first year of the pandemic and uncertainties to come Original Articles

    Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Kendall, Carl; Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de; Ichihara, Maria Yury; Aquino, Estela Maria L; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Albuquerque, Maria de Fatima Pessoa Militão de; Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Souza, Rafael Felipe; Brandão Filho, Sinval Pinto; Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a epidemia da covid-19 na região Nordeste do Brasil, uma das mais atingidas por essa virose. MÉTODOS Os dados oficiais para covid-19 dos estados do Nordeste são referentes ao período de março de 2020 a março de 2021. A análise para capitais e estados da série do acumulado semanal de casos e de óbitos confirmados foi feita com emprego do aplicativo JoinPoint Trend Analysis. RESULTADOS Em um ano, o Nordeste acumulou 22,9% dos casos e 21,5% dos óbitos do país pela covid-19. No início da pandemia, todos os estados apresentaram um crescimento sustentável de casos, primeiro nas capitais e depois interior. Em seguida, observam-se decréscimos em todos os estados e suas capitais, porém muitos permanecem com números elevados. Em meados do segundo semestre de 2020, o número de casos começa a crescer nos estados e suas capitais, alguns em velocidade explosiva, em especial no final de 2020 e início de 2021. Padrão similar é observado para os óbitos, os quais ultrapassaram ou aproximam-se do teto observado na primeira onda, na qual todas as capitais e estados do Nordeste adotaram intensas medidas de isolamento. Fortaleza, Recife e Teresina atingiram os maiores índices de isolamento de todas as capitais, perto de 0,60. Esse índice decresce, com tendência leve de crescimento até final de dezembro, voltando a decrescer. Com exceção de Fortaleza e Salvador, as demais capitais caíram para menos de 0,40. CONCLUSÃO O Nordeste brasileiro e o país estão em uma situação sanitária, social e econômica cada vez mais complexa. É necessário acelerar o processo de vacinação e manter as medidas não farmacológicas – constante uso de máscaras faciais, medidas de distanciamento e cuidados de higiene –, além de políticas de proteção aos trabalhadores que perderam as suas rendas e subsídios aos pequenos empresários.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemic of COVID-19 in northeastern Brazil, one of the regions most affected by the virus. METHODS The official data for COVID-19, from March 2020 to March 2021 in the states of the Northeast Region (NE), were used. The analysis of capital cities and states for accumulated weekly cases and confirmed deaths was made using the JoinPoint Trend Analysis application. RESULTS In one year, the Northeast region reported 22.9% of the cases and 21.5% of the deaths in the country due to COVID-19. At the beginning of the pandemic, all states showed a growing number of cases, first in the capitals and then in the interior. Following this wave, decreases are observed in all states and their capitals, but with many still reporting a large number of cases. In the middle of the 2nd semester of 2020 the number of cases begins to increase again simultaneously in states and their capitals—some at explosive speed—especially in late 2020 and early 2021. A similar pattern is observed in deaths, which exceed or approach the peak seen in the first wave. In the first wave, all capitals and northeastern states adopted intense isolation measures. Fortaleza, Recife and Teresina reached the highest isolation index of all capitals, close to 0.60. This index decreases, with a slight growth trend until the end of December. With the exception of Fortaleza and Salvador, the other capitals fell to less than 0.40. CONCLUSION The Brazilian NE and the country are in increasingly complicated health, social and economic situations. It is necessary to speed up vaccinations and maintain non-pharmacological measures: face masks, social distancing measures and hygiene care, in addition to policies to protect workers who have lost their incomes and to subsidize small business owners.
  • Nonadherence to immunosuppressives and treatment in kidney transplant: ADHERE BRAZIL Study Original Articles

    Marsicano-Souza, Elisa Oliveira; Colugnati, Fernando; Geest, Sabina De; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and variability of nonadherence to immunosuppressives and nonpharmacological treatment across kidney transplantation centers and two health access-disparate regions in Brazil. METHODS In a cross-sectional design, a random multistage sample of 1,105 patients was included, based on center transplantation activity (low/moderate/high) and region (R1: North/Northeast/Mid-West; and R2: South/Southeast). Nonadherence to immunosuppressives (implementation phase) was assessed using the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale (BAASIS)©. Self-report questionnaires assessed nonadherence to physical activity, smoking cessation, alcohol intake, and appointment keeping. We compared regions using the adjusted-χ2 or t-test. RESULTS Most patients were men (58.5%), white (51.4%), and had a mean age of 47.5 (SD = 12.6) years. Regarding kidney transplantation centers, 75.9% were from R2 and 38.2% had low activity. The patients in R2 were older, white-majority, had more frequently steady partners, and received peritoneal dialysis. Nonadherence to immunosuppressives ranged from 11–65.2%; 44.5–90% to physical activity; 0–23.7% to appointment keeping; and 0–14% to smoking cessation. The total prevalence of nonadherence and by region (R1 versus R2) were: for immunosuppressives, 39.7% (44.9% versus 38.1%, p = 0.18); for smoking, 3.9% (1% versus 5%, p < 0.001); for physical activity, 69.1% (71% versus 69%, p = 0.48); for appointment keeping, 13% (12.7% versus 12%, p = 0.77); and for alcohol consumption, 0%. CONCLUSION Despite differences among centers and high variability, only the nonadherence to smoking cessation was higher in the region with greater access to kidney transplantation. We suppose that differences in healthcare access may have been overcome by other positive aspects of the post kidney transplantation treatment.
  • Equity policies in health plans: accessibility and something more? Original Articles

    Buceta, Bran Barral; Lorenzo, Ramón Bouzas; Ramos, Andrés Cernadas; Silva, Ángela Fernández da

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Examinar el enfoque adoptado por los planes de salud de las comunidades autónomas de España verificando el peso otorgado al concepto de equidad; detectar a qué colectivos o situaciones se hace referencia; así como distinguir la perspectiva de abordaje del mismo, desde el acceso, la igualación o la equiparación. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo, de análisis de contenido mediante Nvivo12, realizado en 2020 sobre planes de salud en vigencia a fecha de 2019 en las diferentes regiones (comunidades autónomas) de España. Se han recopilado 16 planes de salud regionales vigentes para establecer categorías base (equidad, accesibilidad e igualdad) y determinar términos asociados a través de Nvivo12, a partir de los que se realizó un análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: El concepto de equidad no resulta destacado por los planes de salud autonómicos y su relevancia es superada por los conceptos de accesibilidad e igualdad. El empleo de estos tres conceptos está asociado a diversas categorías que connotan circunstancias, condiciones o colectivos a los que los planes prestan mayor atención. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados obtenidos coinciden con estudios previos sobre los contenidos y orientación de los planes de salud, revelando una presencia discreta del concepto de equidad en los enfoques adoptados, sin que ello menoscabe el alineamiento de las políticas de salud respecto de las visiones emanadas de organizaciones transnacionales. Se detecta la existencia de un colectivo al que se presta especial atención desde el enfoque de accesibilidad, la población con diversidad funcional.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine the approach adopted by the health plans of the autonomous communities of Spain, verifying the weight given to the concept of equity; to detect referenced communities or situations, as well as to distinguish the perspective of approaching it, from access, equity or equalization. METHODS: Qualitative study, of content analysis using Nvivo12, carried out in 2020 on health plans in force since 2019 in the different regions (autonomous communities) of Spain. Sixteen current regional health plans were compiled to establish base categories (equity, accessibility and equality) and determine associated terms using Nvivo12, from which a content analysis was performed. RESULTS: The concept of equity is not emphasized in the regional health plans and its relevance is surpassed by the concepts of accessibility and equality. The use of these three concepts is associated with various categories indicating circumstances, conditions or groups to which the plans give greater attention. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained coincide with previous studies on the contents and orientation of health plans, revealing a discrete presence of the concept of equity in the approaches adopted, although this does not undermine the alignment of health policies with the visions emanating from transnational organizations. It is detected the existence of a group to which special attention is given from the accessibility approach, the population with functional diversity.
  • Diet and supplement assessment in a Brazilian urban population Original Articles

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess total usual nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements by age, sex, physical activity, and nutritional status, and to compare usual nutrient intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes among non-users and users of dietary supplements in an urban population. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based survey with 506 adults conducted in the city of Brasília, Brazil, using 24h food recalls. The 24-HR was collected on two nonconsecutive days, for which individuals reported all food, supplements, and beverages consumed in the previous 24 hours. The estimates of mean and the distribution percentiles were adjusted to reflect usual nutrient intake using the Iowa State University method. The prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was estimated according to sex using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and values above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) were also considered. Also, a comparison was made of the total mean usual intake between supplement users and non-users according to BMI and physical activity. RESULTS: The total mean usual dietary intake was significantly higher among users than non-users of dietary supplements (p ≤ 0.02). Dietary supplement use increased intakes of nutrients and decreased prevalence of inadequacy according to sex, with only small (typically < 13%) increases in the population exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. There was a significant interaction between physical activity and BMI categories with supplement use. CONCLUSIONS: The population that consumes food supplements comprises individuals with more advanced age, female, normal BMI, and physically active. Our findings show that the use of supplements appears beneficial to attain nutrient adequacy. Careful monitoring of intake from food and supplements is recommended, and the statistical methods must be powerful enough to achieve relevant information.
  • Oral health indicators and sociodemographic factors in Brazil from 2008 to 2015 Original Articles

    Santos, Juliana Leandro dos; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Amorim, Leonardo de Paula; Santos, Anna Rachel Soares; Chiari, Antônio Paulo Gomes; Senna, Maria Inês Barreiros

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the annual variation of oral health and primary care coverage, the tooth extraction ratio, and the average of supervised toothbrushing in Brazilian municipalities according to social development and population size. METHODS: Public secondary data were analyzed. The outcomes were health service indicators (oral health coverage, primary health care coverage, tooth extraction ratio, and average of supervised tooth brushing) estimated for all Brazilian municipalities annually from 2008 to 2015. Mixed-effect multilevel regression models with random intercept and slopes were fitted with a cross-interaction term to estimate the annual percent variation according to the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI) and population size. RESULTS: Municipalities with low MHDI presented an annual increase in oral health and primary care coverage of 2.65% and 2.23%, respectively, which was significantly higher than municipalities with medium and high MHDI. Oral health and primary care coverage were 69.26% and 35.00% lower among municipalities with a large population. Municipalities with medium and high MHDI showed an annual decrease in tooth extractions of 5.15% and 5.02%, respectively. An annual decrease was observed in the average of supervised toothbrushing of 9.81% and 4.57% in municipalities with low and medium MHDI, respectively. The tooth extraction ratio was higher among larger municipalities; the relation is inverse for supervised toothbrushing. CONCLUSIONS: The access to primary care and oral health services increased in Brazil, while a decrease occurred in mutilating treatment and provision of preventive actions, with disparities among municipalities with different MHDI levels over time.
  • Breastfeeding patterns and factors associated with early weaning in the Western Amazon Original Articles

    Martins, Fernanda Andrade; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Andrade, Andréia Moreira de; Opitz, Simone Perufo; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Silva, Ilce Ferreira da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Caracterizar os padrões de amamentação nos primeiros seis meses de vida e fatores associados ao desmame precoce numa coorte de nascidos vivos em Rio Branco, Acre. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com nascidos vivos entre abril e junho de 2015. As entrevistas com as mães ocorreram logo após o nascimento e entre 6 e 15 meses pós-parto. Na alta hospitalar, o aleitamento foi definido em exclusivo (AME) e materno (AM). No seguimento, os padrões de amamentação foram AME, aleitamento materno predominante (AMP) e AM. A interrupção da amamentação nos primeiros seis meses foi classificada como desmame precoce. Utilizou-se o método de Kaplan Meier (log-rank: 95%) para estimar a probabilidade condicional de mudança no padrão de amamentação e risco de desmame. Os fatores associados ao desmame e seus intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) foram analisados pela regressão proporcional de Cox bruta e ajustada. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 833 lactentes que na alta hospitalar estavam em AME (95,4%) e AM (4,6%). A probabilidade do lactente em AME na alta hospitalar permanecer em AME, ou se tornar AMP ou AM, aos seis meses, foi de 16,4%, 32,3% e 56,5% respectivamente. A probabilidade de desmame aos seis meses foi estaticamente maior para lactentes em AM na alta hospitalar (47,4%) em comparação com aqueles em AME (26%). Mostraram-se associados ao desmame precoce: o AM na alta hospitalar (HR = 1,82; IC95% 1,06–3,11), ausência de amamentação cruzada praticada pela mãe (HR = 2,50; IC95% 1,59–3,94), usar chupeta (HR = 6,23; IC95% 4,52–8,60), pretender amamentar por menos de seis meses (HR = 1,93; IC95% 1,25–2,98), não amamentar na primeira hora de vida (HR = 1,45; IC95% 1,10–1,92) e consumir álcool na gestação (HR = 1,88; IC95% 1,34–2,90). CONCLUSÃO: Comparados aos lactentes em AME, aqueles em AM, na alta hospitalar, apresentaram maior probabilidade de desmame. Esforços em saúde pública devem priorizar o AME na alta hospitalar, promover amamentação na primeira hora de vida e orientar sobre os riscos do consumo de álcool na gestação, amamentação cruzada e uso de chupeta.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To characterize breastfeeding patterns in the first six months of life and factors associated with early weaning in a birth-cohort in Rio Branco, state of Acre. METHODS: This is a prospective study with all babies born between April and June 2015. The mothers were interviewed soon after birth and between 6 and 15 months postpartum. At hospital discharge, breastfeeding was defined as exclusively (EBF), and breastfeeding (BF). In the follow-up, breastfeeding patterns were exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), predominant breastfeeding (PBF), and breastfeeding (BF). The interruption of breastfeeding in the first six months was classified as early weaning. The Kaplan Meier method (log-rank: 95%) was used to estimate the conditional probability of change in breastfeeding pattern, and early weaning risk. Crude and adjusted proportional Cox regression models, and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), were used to analyze the factors associated with early weaning. RESULTS: The study included 833 infants in EBF (95.4%) and BF (4.6%) at hospital discharge. During the first six months of life, the infant likely discharged in EBF remaining in EBF, becoming PBF, and BF, were respectively 16.4%, 32.3%, and 56.5%. The weaning likely at six months was statistically higher for infants discharged in BF (47.4%) when compared with those discharged in EBF (26%). Factors associated with early weaning were BF at hospital discharge (HR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.06–3.11), no mother cross-breastfeeding (HR = 2.50; 95%CI 1.59–3.94), pacifier use (HR = 6.23; 95%CI 4.52–8.60), less than six months of breastfeeding intention (HR = 1.93; 95%CI 1.25–2.98), lack of breastfeeding in the first hour of life (HR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.10–1.92), and pregnancy alcohol consumption (HR = 1.88; 95%CI 1.34–2.90). CONCLUSION: Compared to infants in EBF, those in BF at hospital discharge were more likely to wean. Public health efforts should prioritize EBF at hospital discharge, promote breastfeeding in the first hour of life, and prevent alcohol consumption risks during pregnancy, cross-breastfeeding and pacifier use.
  • Older adult health and primary care: autonomy, vulnerabilities and challenges of care Original Articles

    Carneiro, Jeane Lima e Silva; Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Compreender as relações entre a autonomia e processos de saúde-doença-cuidado do idoso no cotidiano da atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS: Investigação qualitativa desenvolvida em 2019, em uma unidade básica de saúde da região central da cidade de São Paulo, utilizando observação participante e entrevistas em profundidade com 16 profissionais de saúde e 8 idosos. A construção e interpretação das narrativas produzidas no estudo foram orientadas pela perspectiva da hermenêutica filosófica de Gadamer e a teoria da interpretação de Ricoeur. O quadro teórico da vulnerabilidade/Cuidadoᵃ, tal como proposto por Ayres, orientou a definição do desenho do estudo e das categorias interpretativas. RESULTADOS: Estreitamente relacionada às dificuldades, facilidades e estratégias de enfrentamento dos desafios diários na atenção à saúde do idoso, a autonomia mostrou-se um importante marcador de vulnerabilidade (interpessoal, social e programática), indicando áreas que requerem atenção especial, como dispensação de medicamentos, mobilidade urbana, isolamento social, fragilidades financeiras e adequação das rotinas dos serviços. CONCLUSÃO: Distintamente de um atributo individual, a autonomia revelou-se expressão de características relacionais, exigindo estratégias, técnicas e horizontes prático-morais plurais e flexíveis, embora sempre orientados pelo mesmo compromisso ético de respeito às necessidades singulares dos indivíduos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To understand the relations between autonomy and health-disease-care processes of older adults in the daily life of primary health care. METHODS: Qualitative research developed in 2019, in a primary health unit in the central region of the city of São Paulo, using participant observation and in-depth interviews with 16 health professionals and 8 older adults. The construction and interpretation of the narratives produced in the study were guided by the perspective of Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics and Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation. The theoretical framework of vulnerability/Careᵃ, as proposed by Ayres, guided the definition of the study and interpretative categories. RESULTS: Closely related to the difficulties, facilities and strategies to cope with the daily challenges in the health care of older adults, autonomy was an important marker of vulnerability (interpersonal, social and programmatic), indicating areas that require special attention, such as drug dispensing, urban mobility, social isolation, financial frailties and adequacy of service routines. CONCLUSION: Distinctly from an individual attribute, autonomy has proved to be the expression of relational characteristics, requiring plural and flexible practical-moral strategies, techniques and horizons, although always guided by the same ethical commitment to respect the singular needs of individuals.
  • User satisfaction in relation to Primary Health Care services in Brazil Original Articles

    Cantalino, Juliana Leal Ribeiro; Scherer, Magda Duarte dos Anjos; Soratto, Jacks; Schäfer, Antônio Augusto; Anjos, Davllyn Santos Oliveira dos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a satisfação de usuários em relação ao acesso, à infraestrutura e à qualidade dos serviços na Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com dados de 114.615 usuários vinculados a 30.523 equipes de saúde, obtidos por meio do banco de dados do Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica (PMAQ-AB). Foram estudadas variáveis independentes relacionadas ao acesso, à infraestrutura e à qualidade dos serviços na APS. O desfecho, satisfação dos usuários, foi mensurado através das variáveis: “se tivesse a opção, mudaria de equipe ou de serviço de saúde” e “recomendaria este serviço de saúde para um amigo ou familiar”. Para avaliar a satisfação de acordo com as variáveis independentes de exposição, foi utilizado o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson, considerando nível de significância de 5%. Análises descritivas das variáveis foram realizadas através de frequências absoluta (n) e relativa (%). RESULTADOS: A satisfação dos usuários esteve associada às variáveis de acesso (p < 0,001), infraestrutura (p < 0,001) e qualidade dos serviços (p < 0,001) na APS. A proximidade do serviço, atenção à demanda espontânea, escuta e o respeito dos profissionais às singularidades do paciente, assim como a resolutividade dos serviços, sem necessidade de encaminhamentos para outros e a boa infraestrutura, estiveram relacionados com a satisfação dos usuários. CONCLUSÃO: Para a garantia da melhoria da qualidade dos serviços ofertados na APS do Brasil, os aspectos de satisfação dos usuários identificados no presente estudo devem ser considerados na organização e gestão dos serviços.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze user satisfaction in relation to access, infrastructure and quality of Primary Health Care (PHC) services in Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with data from 114,615 users linked to 30,523 health teams, obtained through the database of the Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica (PMAQ-AB —National Program for the Improvement of Access and Quality of Primary Care). Independent variables related to access, infrastructure and quality of services in PHC were studied. The outcome, user satisfaction, was measured using the variables: “if given the option, I would change the staff or health service” and “I would recommend this health service to a friend or family member.” To assess satisfaction according to independent exposure variables, Pearson’s chi-squared test was used, considering a significance level of 5%. Descriptive analyses of the variables were performed using absolute (n) and relative (%) frequencies. RESULTS: User satisfaction was associated with the variables of access (p < 0.001), infrastructure (p < 0.001) and quality of services (p < 0.001) in PHC. The proximity of the service, attention to spontaneous demand, listening and the respect of professionals to the singularities of the patient, as well as the problem-solving capacity of the services, without the need for referrals to others and the good infrastructure, were related to user satisfaction. CONCLUSION: To ensure the improvement of the quality of services offered in PHC in Brazil, the aspects of user satisfaction identified in this study should be considered in the organization and management of services.
  • Adverse events following immunization in pregnant women from Minas Gerais Original Articles

    Silveira, Isabela Oliveira da; Silva, Thales Philipe Rodrigues da; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Silva, Roberta Barros da; Gusmão, Josianne Dias; Vimieiro, Aline Mendes; Oliveira, Valéria Conceição de; Souza, Karina Cristina Rouwe de; Faria, Ana Paula Vieira; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição dos eventos adversos pós-vacinação (EAPV) em gestantes do estado de Minas Gerais, entre 2015 e 2019. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, realizado com dados de EAPV, do período de 2015 a 2019, registrados no Sistema de Informação da Vigilância de Eventos Adversos, no estado de Minas Gerais (MG), Brasil. Foram analisados 670 EAPV em gestantes. As estimativas foram apresentadas em proporções, de acordo com o ano de ocorrência, macrorregião de saúde de Minas Gerais e imunobiológico administrado. RESULTADOS: O ano em que mais houve registros foi 2017 (36,8%). Entre as 14 macrorregiões, as com menor e maior número de registros foram o Vale do Jequitinhonha (0,5%) e o Centro (31,8%), respectivamente. As vacinas contraindicadas durante a gestação representaram 27,6% do total de notificações. Foram considerados como erros de imunização 69,5% dos casos. Em 75,9% dos registros, a variável de atendimento médico foi ignorada, e em 73,7% dos casos não foi apresentada informação sobre a evolução. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo expõe a necessidade da educação continuada para a equipe multidisciplinar, a fim de reduzir casos de EAPV e garantir o preenchimento adequado das notificações pelos profissionais de saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnant women in the state of Minas Gerais, between 2015 and 2019. METHODS: This is an epidemiological, descriptive study conducted with AEFI data from 2015 to 2019, recorded in the Adverse Events Surveillance Information System, in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. A total of 670 AEFI were analyzed in pregnant women. The estimates were presented in proportions, according to the year of occurrence, health macro-region of Minas Gerais and immunobiological administered. RESULTS: The year in which there were the most records was 2017 (36.8%). Among the 14 macro-regions, the ones with the lowest and highest number of records were the Vale do Jequitinhonha (0.5%) and Center (31.8%), respectively. The vaccines contraindicated during pregnancy represented 27.6% of the total notifications. The total of 69.5% of the cases were considered immunization errors. In 75.9% of the records, the variable of medical care was ignored, and in 73.7% of the cases no information on the evolution was presented. CONCLUSION: This study shows the need for continuing education for the multidisciplinary team, in order to reduce cases of AEFI and ensure the adequate completion of notifications by health professionals.
  • Prediction of low birth weight with hypoglycemia in glucose tolerance test Original Articles

    Hernández-Castro, Flavio; Berlanga-Garza, Anaís; Cruz-Gutiérrez, Mayela Diamantina; Soria-López, Juan Antonio; Villagómez-Martínez, Gabriel Edgar; Dávila-Escamilla, Iván Vladimir

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Determinar el valor de la combinación de la glucosa en ayunas menor que el percentil 10 (GA < p10) durante la prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa con 75 gramos (PTG-75g) con características maternas para predecir bajo peso al nacer (BPN) establecido mediante tablas de Intergrowth-21st. MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo de mujeres embarazadas que se realizaron PTG-75g entre las 24 y 28.6 semanas. Se determinó el percentil 10 de glucosa en ayunas de la población en 65 mg/dL y fueron excluidas aquellas mujeres con factores de riesgo que pudieran modificar el peso fetal incluyendo los relacionados con la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino. Se formaron dos grupos: grupo GA < p10 y grupo con glucosa en ayunas normal. El hallazgo principal fue el diagnóstico de BPN. La asociación entre GA < p10, características maternas y BPN se estableció mediante regresión logística multivariante. El desempeño predictivo de los modelos construidos fue evaluado por el análisis de la curva característica operativa del receptor (ROC) y del área bajo la curva (ABC). RESULTADOS: Fueron elegibles para estudio 349 mujeres, de las cuales 66 (18,91%) tuvieron GA < p10; los neonatos de este grupo tuvieron pesos al nacer más bajos (2947.28 g y 3138.26 g, p = 0,001), frecuencias más altas de BPN (25% y 6,81%, p < 0,001) y de pesos < 2500 g en nacimientos de término (8,6% y 2,3%, p = 0,034). El modelo basal de predicción consistió en nuliparidad al lograr un ABC del 60%, mientras que al añadir la GA < p10 se obtuvo la mejora significativa del modelo previo (ABC 72%, DeLong: p = 0,005). CONCLUSIONES: En mujeres embarazadas sin factores que pudieran modificar el peso fetal, el modelo predictivo creado combinando GA < p10 durante la PTG-75g con nuliparidad estuvo asociado significativamente con riesgo incrementado de BPN. REGISTRO: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04144595.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Determine the value of the combination of fasting glucose less than the 10th percentile (FG < p10) during 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test (75g OGTT) with maternal characteristics to predict low birth weight (LBW) established by Intergrowth-21st tables. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of pregnant women who was underwent 75g OGTT between 24 and 28.6 weeks. The 10th percentile fasting glucose of the population was determined at 65 mg/dL and women with risk factors that could modify fetal weight, including those related to intrauterine growth restriction, were excluded. Two groups were formed: group FG < p10 and group with normal fasting glucose. The main finding was the diagnosis of LBW. The association between FG < p10, maternal characteristics and LBW was established by multivariate logistic regression. The predictive performance of the models constructed was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS: 349 women were eligible for study, of whom 66 (18.91%) had FG < p10; neonates in this group had lower birth weights (2947.28 g and 3138.26 g, p = 0.001), higher frequencies of LBW (25% and 6.81%, p < 0.001) and of weights < 2500 g in term births (8.6% and 2.3%, p = 0.034). The basal prediction model consisted of nulliparity by achieving an AUC of 60%, while the addition of FG < p10 resulted in the significant improvement of the previous model (AUC 72%, DeLong: p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women without factors that could modify fetal weight, the predictive model created by combining FG < p10 during 75g OGTT with nulliparity was significantly associated with increased risk of LBW. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04144595.
  • Factors associated with prematurity in reported cases of congenital syphilis Original Articles

    Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Esteves, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Rocha, Ana Fátima Braga; Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores associados à prematuridade em casos notificados de sífilis congênita no município de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em dez maternidades públicas de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Foram incluídos 478 casos notificados de sífilis congênita em 2015, e os dados foram coletados das fichas de notificação, dos prontuários das mães e dos bebês e do cartão de pré-natal. Para a análise bivariada, foram utilizados os testes do qui-quadrado de Pearson e exato de Fisher, considerando p < 0,05. Realizou-se regressão logística múltipla, apresentando razão de chances (OR) com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se 15,3% de prematuridade em gestantes com sífilis. A titulação do teste VDRL > 1:8 no parto (OR 2,46; IC95%: 1,33–4,53; p = 0,004), o não tratamento da gestante ou tratamento realizado com drogas diferentes da penicilina durante o pré-natal (OR 3,52; IC95%: 1,74–7,13; p < 0,001) estiveram associados a maiores chances de prematuridade. CONCLUSÃO: A prematuridade decorrente da sífilis congênita é um agravo evitável, desde que as gestantes com sífilis sejam tratadas adequadamente. As fragilidades na assistência pré-natal estão associadas a este desfecho, o que ressalta a importância de implementar políticas públicas voltadas a melhorar a qualidade do pré-natal.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with prematurity in reported cases of congenital syphilis in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in ten public maternity hospitals in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. A total of 478 reported cases of congenital syphilis were included in 2015, and data were collected from notification forms, from mothers’ and babies’ medical records and from prenatal cards. For the bivariate analysis, Pearson’s chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests were used, considering p < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression was conducted, presenting odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: We found 15.3% prematurity in pregnant women with syphilis. The titration of the VDRL test > 1:8 at delivery (OR 2.46; 95%CI: 1.33–4.53; p = 0.004) and the non-treatment of the pregnant women or treatment with drugs other than penicillin during prenatal care (OR 3.52; 95%CI: 1.74–7.13; p< 0.001) were associated with higher chances of prematurity. CONCLUSION: The prematurity due to congenital syphilis is a preventable condition, provided that pregnant women with syphilis are treated appropriately. Weaknesses in prenatal care are associated with this outcome, which highlights the importance of public policies oriented to improve the quality of prenatal care.
  • Erratum: Aging with health: aging in place strategies of a Portuguese population aged 65 years or older Erratum

  • Impact of COAP on access to primary care in Ceará and Mato Grosso do Sul through the analysis of interrupted time series Original Articles

    Pires, Débora Castanheira; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Emmerrick, Isabel Martins

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar o impacto da implementação do Contrato Organizativo de Ação Pública (COAP) sobre a ampliação do acesso à atenção básica nos estados do Ceará e Mato Grosso do Sul. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o método de séries temporais interrompidas para analisar o efeito do COAP sobre a cobertura da atenção básica (CobAB) e sobre as taxas de internação evitáveis. Para analisar os efeitos do aumento da CobAB sobre as internações evitáveis ao longo do tempo, foram utilizados modelos de séries temporais não segmentadas. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que a implementação do COAP teve impacto positivo sobre o aumento da cobertura nos dois casos, o que não aconteceu nos controles. Contudo, esse impacto não se refletiu na diminuição das taxas de internação por condições sensíveis à atenção básica (ICSAB) ou por causas evitáveis agudas. Quando analisamos os efeitos do aumento da CobAB sobre as internações evitáveis entre 2009 e 2016, observamos que a cobertura teve impacto positivo na diminuição da taxa de ICSAB apenas no Ceará, apesar de as internações terem tendência significativa de queda no tempo tanto neste estado quanto no Mato Grosso do Sul, exceto por infecções respiratórias agudas. CONCLUSÕES: O COAP continua sendo o instrumento regulador da regionalização vigente, contudo, os resultados obtidos pela adesão a ele na expansão da atenção básica no Ceará e no Mato Grosso do Sul fazem questionar se o modelo contratual, tal como previsto, é o melhor instrumento para o avanço da regionalização do Sistema Único de Saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of implementing the Contrato Organizativo de Ação Pública (COAP – Public Action Organizational Contract) on the expansion of access to primary care in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso do Sul. METHODS: We used the interrupted time series method to analyze the effect of COAP on primary care coverage (PCCov) and on avoidable hospitalization rates. To analyze the effects of increased PCCov on avoidable hospitalizations, we used non-segmented time series models. RESULTS: The results showed that implementing COAP had a positive impact on increased coverage in both cases, with did not happen in the control states. However, this impact was not reflected in the decrease in hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions (HPCSC) or for acute preventable causes. When we analyzed the effects of the increase in PCCov on avoidable hospitalizations between 2009 and 2016, we observed that coverage had a positive impact on the decrease in the rate of HPCSC only in Ceará, although hospitalizations have a significant trend to decrease in time both in this state and in Mato Grosso do Sul, except for acute respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: The COAP continues to be the regulatory instrument of regionalization force, however, the results obtained by adhering to it in the expansion of primary care in Ceará and Mato Grosso do Sul makes us question whether the contractual model, as predicted, is the best instrument for advancing regionalization in the Brazilian Unified Health System.
  • Breast imaging hindered during covid-19 pandemic, in Brazil Original Articles

    Bessa, Jordana de Faria

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To report the decrease in breast imaging after covid-19 pandemic, obtaining the number of mammograms performed in 2019 and 2020. Additionally, to investigate if there was an increase in the proportion of women undergoing mammography for diagnostic purposes, with palpable lesions. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study, based on the number of mammograms performed by the Brazilian public health services, provided by DATASUS, an open access database. Mammograms from private institutions were not included. This study compares the number of mammograms performed in 2019 and 2020, in women aged 50–69 years, stratified by month, in each federal state, and the presence of palpable lumps (physician-reported). RESULTS: In total, 1,948,471 mammograms were performed in 2019 and 1,126,688 in 2020, for the population studied. These values represent a 42% decline. Monthly, a significant decreased is observed after April 2020. The results varied slightly according to federal state; yet the entire country was affected. Rondônia was the most affected state, with 67% decline. The proportion of women presenting palpable lumps increased from 7.06% on average in 2019 to 7.94% in 2020 (OR = 1.135, 95%CI 1.125–1.145, p = 0,001). DISCUSSION: The number of mammograms performed in 2020 declined considerably. Out of the women who presented for mammogram, the proportion of palpable lumps was significantly higher in 2020. Considering the detection rate of digital mammography, the loss of 800,000 exams means 4,000 undiagnosed breast cancer cases, by the end of 2020.
  • Performance and perception on front-of-package nutritional labeling models in Brazil Original Articles

    Bandeira, Luisete Moraes; Pedroso, Jéssica; Toral, Natacha; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho e a percepção de cinco modelos de rotulagem nutricional frontal (RNF) entre consumidores brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com aplicação de questionário online a 2.400 indivíduos, alocados de forma aleatória em seis grupos de estudo, sendo um controle e cinco expostos a modelos de RNF (octógono, triângulo, círculo, lupa e semáforo), aplicados a nove alimentos. Foi avaliado o entendimento do conteúdo nutricional, a percepção de saudabilidade, a intenção de compra e a percepção dos consumidores brasileiros sobre os modelos. RESULTADOS: Todos os modelos de RNF aumentaram o entendimento do conteúdo nutricional e reduziram a percepção de saudabilidade e a intenção de compra, quando comparados ao grupo controle (41,3%). Os modelos de RNF de advertência - octógono (62,4%), triângulo (61,9%) e círculo (61,8%) - apresentaram desempenho significativamente superior ao semáforo (55,0%) quanto ao entendimento do conteúdo nutricional. O desempenho do modelo da lupa (59,5%) não diferiu dos outros quatro modelos testados, inclusive do semáforo (55,0%), para o entendimento do conteúdo nutricional. A análise individual dos alimentos sugere melhor desempenho das advertências em relação à lupa e ao semáforo para a percepção de saudabilidade e a intenção de compra. Os consumidores manifestam-se favoráveis à presença da RNF, percebendo-a como confiável para aumentar o entendimento das informações nutricionais. CONCLUSÃO: A RNF deve ser implementada nos rótulos dos alimentos no Brasil, considerando que aumenta o entendimento nutricional, reduz a percepção de saudabilidade e a intenção de compra de alimentos com nutrientes críticos. As advertências apresentaram melhor desempenho quando comparadas aos demais modelos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and perception of five models of front-of-package nutrition labeling (FOPNL) among Brazilian consumers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, which applied an online questionnaire to 2,400 individuals, allocated randomly into six study groups: a control group and five others exposed to FOPNL (octagon, triangle, circle, magnifier and traffic light), applied to nine products. We evaluated the understanding of nutritional content, the perception of healthiness, the purchase intention and the perception of Brazilian consumers on the models. RESULTS: All FOPNL models increased the understanding of the nutritional content and reduced the perception of healthiness and purchase intention, when compared with the control group (41.3%). FOPNL warning models — octagon (62.4%), triangle (61.9%) and circle (61.8%) — performed significantly better than the traffic light (55.0%) regarding the understanding of the nutritional content. The performance of the magnifier (59.5%) was similar to the other four tested models, including the traffic light (55.0%), for understanding nutritional content. The individual analysis of the products suggests a better performance of warnings in relation to the magnifier and the traffic light for the perception of healthiness and purchase intention. Consumers were favorable to the presence of FOPNL, perceiving it as reliable to increase the understanding to nutritional information. CONCLUSION: FOPNL must be implemented on food labels in Brazil, considering that it increases the nutritional understanding, reduces the perception of healthiness and the purchase intention of products with critical nutrients. Warnings showed a better performance when compared with other models.
  • Climate change and environmental health in undergraduate health degrees in Latin America Original Articles

    Palmeiro-Silva, Yasna K; Ferrada, María Teresa; Flores, Jorge Ramírez; Cruz, Ignacio Silva Santa

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Analizar la incorporación de cursos de cambio climático y salud ambiental en las mallas curriculares del grado en Medicina, Enfermería, Nutrición y Psicología clínica en universidades latinoamericanas. MÉTODOS: Revisión documental de tipo descriptiva y transversal. Se analizaron las mallas curriculares de las diez primeras universidades latinoamericanas según los rankings QS Latin American University 2020, Times Higher Education World University 2020 y Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019. En cada malla curricular se buscó la presencia de cursos relacionados al cambio climático y la salud ambiental. RESULTADOS: De las 161 universidades que se incluyeron en el estudio, 104 ofrecían la carrera de Medicina, 93 de Enfermería, 77 de Nutrición y 118 de Psicología clínica. La mayor parte de las mallas curriculares incorporaron cursos de salud pública y/o epidemiología (más del 70%), sin embargo, entre el 22% y el 41% incluyeron cursos de salud ambiental, y solo una malla curricular tuvo un curso en cambio climático en Medicina y Enfermería (1%). CONCLUSIONES: Los cursos de cambio climático y salud ambiental han sido introducidos, de forma escasa, en las mallas curriculares del campo de la salud en universidades latinoamericanas. Esto podría debilitar el importante rol que cumplen los profesionales de la salud en la asistencia sanitaria a la población.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Analyze the incorporation of climate change and environmental health courses in the curriculum grids of Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology undergraduate courses in Latin American universities. METHODS: Descriptive and cross-sectional document review. Curriculum grids of the top ten Latin American universities were analyzed according to the rankings of QS Latin American University 2020, Times Higher Education World University 2020 and Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019. The presence of courses related to climate change and environmental health was sought in each curriculum grid. RESULTS: 104 of the 161 universities included in the study offered Medicine courses, 93 Nursing courses, 77 Nutrition courses and 118 Clinical Psychology courses. Most of the curriculum grids incorporated courses in public health and/or epidemiology (more than 70%); however, between 22% and 41% included courses on environmental health, and only one curriculum grid had a course on climate change in Medicine and Nursing (1%). CONCLUSIONS: Courses on climate change and environmental health have been scarcely introduced in the curriculum grids of the health field in Latin American universities. This could weaken the important role that health professionals play in providing health care to the population.
  • Locomotor activity in Aedes aegypti with different insecticide resistance profiles Original Articles

    Nakazato, Bruno Magalhães; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate locomotor activity in four field populations of Ae. aegypti with different insecticide resistance profiles from the state of São Paulo for two years. METHODS: This study comprised the susceptible Rockefeller strain and four populations from São Paulo, Brazil: two considered populations with “reduced susceptibility” to pyrethroids (Campinas and Marília), and two “resistant populations” (Santos and Ribeirão Preto). First, 2016 and 2017 eggs from these five populations were hatched in laboratory. Virgin females underwent experiments under laboratory conditions at 25°C, with 12:12h light/dark (LD) photoperiod; 24-hour individual activity was recorded using a locomotor activity monitor (LAM). RESULTS: In females from 2016 field populations, both resistant populations showed significant more locomotor activity than the two reduced susceptibility populations and the Rockefeller strain (p < 0.05). As for females from 2017 field populations, reduced susceptibility populations showed a significant increased locomotor activity than the Rockefeller strain, but no significant difference when compared to Santos resistant population (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations show increased locomotor activity, which may affect the transmission dynamics of their arboviruses.
  • Prevalence and factors associated with covid-19 vaccine hesitancy in Maranhão, Brazil Original Articles

    Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Campos, Marcos Adriano Garcia; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e; Souza, Bruno Feres de; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Estimar a prevalência e fatores associados à hesitação ao uso da vacina contra o vírus SARS-CoV-2 no Maranhão, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado de 19 a 30 de outubro de 2020. As estimativas consideraram agrupamento, estratificação e não resposta. A seleção da amostra foi realizada em três estágios (estrato, setores censitários e domicílio). Após análise sistemática, em cada estrato foram selecionados trinta setores, totalizando 150 setores, sendo o número de domicílios em cada setor fixado em 34, totalizando 5.100 domicílios e um indivíduo por domicílio (residente pelo menos há seis meses e com um ano de idade ou mais) selecionado por amostra aleatória simples. A intenção de ser vacinado foi questionada aos participantes. Foi realizada análise descritiva (frequências ponderadas) e teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson para verificar associação univariada entre as variáveis independentes e o desfecho (p < 0,05). Realizou-se análise multivariada robusta utilizando-se modelagem hierarquizada em três níveis. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 4.630 indivíduos. A prevalência de hesitação vacinal foi de 17,5% (IC95% 16,1–19,1%). Após ajuste final do modelo, a hesitação vacinal foi estatisticamente maior entre moradores das cidades de Imperatriz (24,0%; RP = 1,48; IC95% 1,09–2,02) e de munícipios da Grande Ilha de São Luís (20,7%; RP = 1,34; IC95% 1,02–1,76), pessoas do sexo feminino (19,8%; RP = 1,44; IC95% 1,20–1,75), idosos (22,8%; RP = 1,79; IC95% 1,30–2,46), pertencentes às religiões de denominação evangélica (24,1%; RP = 1,49; IC95% 1,24–1,79) e entre aqueles sem relato de sintomas (18,6%; RP = 1,24; IC95% 1,02–1,51). Outras características socioeconômicas e demográficas, assim como variáveis relacionadas ao mercado de trabalho, comportamentos e condições de saúde dos entrevistados, não tiveram diferença estatística. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de hesitação vacinal no Maranhão e sua associação com fatores individuais, contextuais e clínicos revelam os grupos e contextos mais resistentes e que devem merecer atenção especial das estratégias públicas para garantir a ampla vacinação.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with hesitancy in getting the vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from October 19 to 30, 2020. The estimates were calculated based on clustering, stratification, and non-response. A three-stage sampling was adopted, considering stratum, census tracts, and domicile. After systematic analysis, thirty sectors were selected in each stratum, totaling 150 sectors. Each sector contained a fixed number of 34 households, thus totaling 5,100 households. One individual within each household (resident for at least six months and aged one year or more) was selected by a simple random sampling. We questioned participants about their vaccination intention. Univariate association between independent variables and the outcome were verified using descriptive analysis (weighted frequencies) and Pearson's chi-square test (p < 0.05). Robust multivariate analysis was performed using a three-level hierarchical model. RESULTS: We found 17.5% (95%CI 16.1–19.1%) of the 4,630 individuals interviewed to report hesitancy to be vaccinated against covid-19. After final model adjustment, vaccination hesitancy was statistically higher among residents of the cities of Imperatriz (24.0%; RP = 1.48; IC95% 1.09–2.02) and municipalities of the Grande Ilha de São Luís (20.7%; RP = 1.34; 95%CI 1.02–1.76), female individuals (19.8%; RP = 1.44; 95%CI 1.20–1.75), older adults (22.8%; RP = 1.79; IC95% 1.30–2.46), evangelicals (24.1%; RP = 1.49; 95%CI 1.24–1.79), and those without reported symptoms (18.6%; RP = 1.24; 95%CI 1.02–1.51). We found no statistical differences for other socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, as well as variables related to the labor market, behaviors, and health conditions of the interviewees. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy in Maranhão and its association with individual, contextual, and clinical factors enable us to identify the groups and contexts of greatest resistance, requiring special attention from public strategies to ensure wide vaccination.
  • Embedded implementation research determinants in Latin American health systems Original Articles

    García-Cerde, Rodrigo; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Langlois, Étienne; Reveiz, Ludovic; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline; Torres-Pereda, Pilar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of embedded implementation research (EIR) conduct in seven Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: This qualitative interpretative study conducted and analyzed 14 semi-structured interviews based on a grounded theory approach using Atlas-ti© 7.5.7. We grouped the conditions appointed by interviewees as determinants of EIR conduct into six domains. RESULTS: The participation of high-level engaged decision makers as research co-producers is an important EIR determinant that fosters research use. Nevertheless, EIR faces challenges such as dealing with key personnel changes and fluctuating political contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Despite its limitations, EIR is effective in creating a sense of ownership of research results among implementers, which helps bridge the gap between research and decision-making in health systems.
  • Neurodevelopment in the third year of life in children with antenatal ZIKV-exposure Brief Communications

    Aizawa, Carolina Yuri Panvequio; Caron, Deyse Mayara Rodrigues; Souza, Carolina Barbosa de; Kozima, Paula Fernanda Augusto; Damasceno, Luana; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B.; Brasil, Patrícia; Schmitt, Ana Carolina Basso; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Hasue, Renata Hydee

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We report cognitive, language and motor neurodevelopment, assessed by the Bayley-III test, in 31 non-microcephalic children at age 3 with PCR-confirmed maternal Zika virus exposure (Rio de Janeiro, 2015–2016). Most children had average neurodevelopmental scores, however, 8 children (26%) presented delay in some domain. Language was the most affected: 7 children (22.6%) had a delay in this domain (2 presenting severe delay). Moderate delay was detected in the cognitive (3.2%) and motor (10%) domains. Maternal illness in the third trimester of pregnancy and later gestational age at birth were associated with higher Bayley-III scores. Zika-exposed children require long-term follow-up until school age.
  • Psychiatric hospitalizations by the Unified Health System in Brazil between 2000 and 2014 Original Articles

    Rocha, Hugo André da; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Santos, Marcos Antônio da Cunha; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Caracterizar o perfil dos pacientes que foram internados por transtornos mentais e comportamentais pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no Brasil entre 2000 e 2014, bem como verificar como aspectos da nova política de saúde mental influenciaram a taxa de pacientes internados no referido período. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte prospectiva não concorrente utilizando dados secundários de pacientes internados com diagnóstico primário de transtornos mentais e comportamentais entre 01/01/2000 e 31/12/2014. Foram selecionadas variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e de características do hospital, além disso, foram calculadas as taxas gerais de pacientes internados segundo motivo de internação, tipo de hospital, natureza jurídica e número de internações de cada paciente por ano. Foi testada a associação entre taxas de pacientes internados, número de leitos psiquiátricos por ano e número de Centros de Atenção Psicossocial por ano. RESULTADOS Foram selecionados 1.549.298 pacientes dos quais os diagnósticos mais frequentes na primeira internação foram os transtornos devidos ao uso de substâncias psicoativas, seguidos por esquizofrenia e transtornos de humor. A mediana de internações por paciente foi de 1,9 e a de tempo de internação por paciente foi de 29 dias. A taxa geral de pacientes internados foi reduzida à quase metade no período. O número de leitos por ano apresentou associação positiva com as taxas de pacientes internados, e o número de CAPS por ano teve associação negativa com algumas taxas de pacientes internados. CONCLUSÃO Verificou-se que, mesmo diante de um contexto de adversidades, a Política Nacional de Saúde Mental avançou em suas metas de reduzir progressivamente os leitos hospitalares e aumentar a oferta de serviços substitutivos de tal modo que ambas as estratégias foram associadas à redução das taxas de pacientes internados. Contudo, as mudanças foram percebidas com maior intensidade nos primeiros anos de implantação da política, tornando-se menos pujante nos últimos anos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the profile of patients hospitalized for mental and behavioral disorders by the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil between 2000 and 2014, and to verify how aspects of the new mental health policy influenced the rate of hospitalized patients in that period. METHODS Non-concurrent prospective cohort study using secondary data from inpatients with a primary diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders between 01/01/2000 and 12/31/2014. Sociodemographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics variables were selected. Overall rates of hospitalized patients were calculated according to reason for admission, type of hospital, legal nature, and number of admissions per year for each patient. The association between rates of hospitalized patients, number of psychiatric beds per year, and number of Psychosocial Care Centers per year were tested. RESULTS We selected a total of 1,549,298 patients, whose most frequent diagnoses on first admission were psychoactive substance use disorders, followed by schizophrenia and mood disorders. The median of hospitalizations per patient was 1.9 and the length of stay per patient was 29 days. The overall rate of hospitalized patients was reduced by almost half in the period. The number of beds per year was positively associated with the rates of hospitalized patients; the number of CAPS per year was negatively associated with some rates of hospitalized patients. CONCLUSION Even in the face of adversity, the National Mental Health Policy has advanced in its goal of progressively reducing hospital beds and increasing the supply of substitute services such that both strategies were associated with the reduced inpatient rates. But the changes were felt with greater intensity in the first years of the policy’s implementation, becoming less pronounced in recent years.
  • Prelabor cesarean section: the role of advanced maternal age and associated factors Original Articles

    Martinelli, Katrini Guidolini; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Almeida, André Henrique do Vale de; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE to evaluate whether advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with prelabor cesarean section and to identify the factors associated with prelabor cesarean section in AMA women, according to the mode of type of labor financing (private or public). METHODS Based on the Birth in Brazil survey, the research was conducted on representative sample of mothers for the country (Brazil), regions, type of hospital and location (capital or not), in 2011/2012. This study included 15,071 women from two age groups: 20–29 years and ≥ 35 years. The information was collected from interviews with puerperal woman, prenatal cards, and medical records of mothers and newborns. Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to verify the association between prelabor cesarean section and maternal, prenatal and childbirth characteristics, according to the mode of financing. RESULTS Our results showed a higher use of prelabor cesarean section for AMA (≥ 35 years) women in the public service (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.38–1.94) and in the private service (OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.13–1.83), compared with women aged 20–29 years. In the adjusted model, we recorded three factors associated with the prelabor cesarean section in AMA women in both, public and private sectors: the same professional in prenatal care and childbirth (OR = 4.97 and OR = 4.66); nulliparity (OR = 6.17 and OR = 10.08), and multiparity with previous cesarean section (from OR = 5.73 to OR = 32.29). The presence of obstetric risk (OR = 1.94; 95%CI .44–2.62) also contributed to the occurrence of prelabor cesarean section in women who gave birth in the public service. CONCLUSIONS AMA was an independent risk factor for prelabor cesarean in public and private services. In the public, prelabor cesarean in AMA was more influenced by clinical criteria. Higher chance of prelabor cesarean section in nulliparous women increases the chance of cesarean section in multiparous women, as we showed in this study, which increases the risk of anomalous placental implantation.
  • Major depressive disorder in detention officers Original Articles

    Santos, Sheila Nascimento; Santos, Kionna Oliveira Bernardes; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar fatores associados a transtorno depressivo maior (TDM) em agentes penitenciários. MÉTODOS Este estudo de corte transversal incluiu todos os agentes penitenciários do maior complexo prisional do estado da Bahia (Brasil). Num questionário autoaplicado, coletaram-se informações sociodemográficas, ocupacionais e de saúde. A variável de desfecho – TDM – foi avaliada pelo Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) e classificada pelo método do ponto de corte ≥ 10 e pelo método de algoritmo. A razão de prevalência (RP) foi a medida de associação utilizada. Conforme regressão multivariada de Cox, as variáveis foram inseridas em dois blocos: características sociodemográficas e aspectos do trabalho, nessa ordem. Apenas as variáveis com RP ajustada (RPaj) ≥ 1,30 foram selecionadas para compor os modelos finais. RESULTADOS Nos 401 agentes investigados, a prevalência de TDM pelo ponto de corte ≥ 10 (simples) e pelo método de algoritmo foi de 18,8% e 9,3%, respectivamente. A prevalência de TDM pelo ponto de corte ≥ 10 foi maior em agentes do sexo feminino (RPaj = 2,77), que sofreram ameaça de facções (RPaj = 2,05), que não referiram treinamento institucional para o cargo (RPaj = 1,38), que afirmaram que o ambiente e as condições de trabalho interferiam na sua saúde física (RPaj = 3,51) e que exerciam atividades geradoras de tensão (RPaj em gradiente crescente). A prevalência de TDM pelo método de algoritmo foi mais elevada em agentes do sexo feminino (RPaj = 3,45), com escolaridade superior (RPaj = 1,71), que afirmaram que o ambiente e as condições de trabalho interferiam na sua saúde física (RPaj = 6,33), que sofreram ameaça de facções (RPaj = 2,14), que não referiram treinamento institucional (RPaj = 1,50) e que têm contato frequente com internos no trabalho (RPaj = 1,48). CONCLUSÃO A alta prevalência de TDM nesses agentes penitenciários associou-se a aspectos sociodemográficos e, principalmente, a aspectos do seu trabalho.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in detention officers. METHODS This cross-sectional study included all detention officers from the largest prison complex in the state of Bahia, Brazil. A self-reported questionnaire collected sociodemographic, occupational and health data. The outcome variable – MDD – was evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and classified by the cut-off point ≥ 10 method and the algorithm method. The association measure used was the prevalence ratio (PR). Following Cox multivariate regression, the variables were divided into two blocks: sociodemographic characteristics and work, in that order. Only variables with adjusted PR (PRadj) ≥ 1.30 were selected to compose the final models. RESULTS The MDD prevalence by the cut-off point ≥ 10 (simple) and algorithm method in the 401 officers investigated was 18.8% and 9.3%, respectively. MDD prevalence by cut-off point ≥ 10 was higher in female officers (PRadj = 2.77), who suffered threat from factions (PRadj = 2.05), did not report institutional training for the position (PRadj = 1.38), stated that the environment and working conditions interfered in their physical health (PRadj = 3.51) and performed stress-generating activities (PRadj in increasing gradient). MDD prevalence by the algorithm method was higher in female agents (PRadj = 3.45), with tertiary education (PRadj = 1.71), who stated that the environment and working conditions interfered in their physical health (PRadj = 6.33), suffered threat from factions (PRadj = 2.14), did not report institutional training (PRadj = 1.50) and have frequent contact with inmates at work (PRadj = 1.48). CONCLUSION The high MDD prevalence in these detention officers was associated with sociodemographic factors and, especially, aspects of their work.
  • Impact of matrix support on older adults in primary care: randomized community trial Original Articles

    Maia, Luciana Colares; Colares, Thomaz de Figueiredo Braga; Morais, Edgar Nunes de; Costa, Simone de Melo; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto do apoio matricial em saúde ao idoso na atenção primária de acordo com as dimensões de fragilidade aferidas por meio do índice de vulnerabilidade clínico-funcional (IVCF-20). MÉTODOS Trata-se de ensaio comunitário randomizado controlado (ECRC), desenvolvido no norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2018. Inicialmente ocorreu, por meio do IVCF-20, a estratificação de vulnerabilidade clínico-funcional dos idosos assistidos por seis equipes de Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Posteriormente, três equipes foram sorteadas para receber apoio matricial durante seis meses, e as demais, para controle. Nesta intervenção, desenvolveram-se atividades educativas presenciais para as equipes de saúde. Realizou-se estatística descritiva, seguida de análise bivariada pelo teste qui-quadrado de Pearson, para comparação das variáveis do IVCF-20 entre os dois momentos (antes e após a intervenção), com nível de significância de 5%. Estimaram-se os riscos relativos (RR) e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). RESULTADOS Os grupos eram similares antes da intervenção, e o efeito de ações de matriciamento foi positivo para a maioria das dimensões aferidas pelo IVCF-20 (atividade de vida diária instrumental, cognição, humor, mobilidade, comunicação e comorbidades múltiplas). O percentual de fragilidade no grupo assistido por profissionais participantes do apoio matricial, ao final da pesquisa, foi inferior ao do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES As ações de matriciamento, como atribuição pedagógica e assistência horizontal para as equipes de saúde, têm o potencial de contribuir para a articulação de modelos de cuidado para a saúde do idoso. REBEC registro BR-7b9xff

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of matrix support on health for older adults in primary care according to the dimensions of frailty measured with the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20). METHODS This is a randomized controlled community trial, developed in the Northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in 2018. Initially, the stratification of clinical and functional vulnerability of older adults supported by six Family Health Strategy teams occurred with the IVCF-20. Subsequently, three teams were drawn to receive matrix support for six months, and the others for control. In this intervention, face-to-face educational activities were developed for health teams. Descriptive statistics were performed, followed by bivariate analysis by Pearson’s chi-square test, to compare the variables of the IVCF-20 between the two moments (before and after the intervention), with a 5% significance level. Relative risks and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. RESULTS The groups were similar before intervention, and the effect of matrix actions was positive for most dimensions measured by IVCF-20 (instrumental daily living activity, cognition, mood, mobility, communication, and multiple comorbidities). At the end of the research, the percentage of frailty in the group assisted by professionals participating in matrix support was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS Matrix support actions, such as pedagogical attribution and horizontal care for health teams, have the potential to contribute to the articulation of models of care for older adults. REBEC registro BR-7b9xff
  • Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods: description and performance evaluation in Brazil Original Articles

    Costa, Caroline dos Santos; Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Gabe, Kamila Tiemann; Sattamini, Isabela Fleury; Khandpur, Neha; Leite, Fernanda Helena Marrocos; Steele, Eurídice Martínez; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o escore Nova de consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados e avaliar seu potencial para refletir, no contexto brasileiro, a participação desses alimentos na dieta. MÉTODOS Estudo realizado na cidade de São Paulo com amostra de conveniência de 300 adultos, que responderam, em cerca de três minutos, em um tablet, a um questionário eletrônico de autorrelato sobre o consumo, no dia anterior, de 23 subgrupos de alimentos ultraprocessados comumente consumidos no Brasil. O escore de cada participante correspondeu ao número de subgrupos reportados. A participação de alimentos ultraprocessados no consumo alimentar do mesmo dia, expressa como percentual da ingestão total de energia, foi calculada por meio das respostas dos participantes a recordatório alimentar completo de 24 horas aplicado em cerca de 30 minutos por nutricionistas treinados. A associação entre o escore e a participação de ultraprocessados na dieta foi estudada por modelos de regressão linear. A concordância na classificação dos participantes segundo quintos do escore e quintos da participação de alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta foi avaliada pelo índice Pabak. RESULTADOS O percentual médio de participação de alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta aumentou linear e significativamente com o aumento do escore Nova de consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados. Observou-se concordância substancial na classificação dos participantes segundo quintos da distribuição do escore e quintos da distribuição do percentual de participação de alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta (índice Pabak = 0,67). Relação inversa da idade com a frequência de consumo relativamente elevado de alimentos ultraprocessados (quinto superior da distribuição) foi observada tanto para o escore quanto para a participação de alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta. CONCLUSÃO O escore Nova de consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados, obtido de forma rápida e prática, apresenta bom potencial para refletir, no contexto brasileiro, a participação desses alimentos na dieta.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and evaluate its potential in reflecting the dietary share of UPF in Brazil. METHODS This study was conducted in São Paulo with a convenience sample of 300 adults. Using a tablet, participants answered a 3-minute electronic self-report questionnaire on the consumption of 23 subgroups of UPF commonly consumed in Brazil, regarding the day prior the survey. Each participant score corresponded to the number of subgroups reported. The dietary share of UPF on the day prior to the survey, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, was calculated based on data collected on a 30-minute complete 24-hour dietary recall administered by trained nutritionists. The association between the score and the dietary share of UPF was evaluated using linear regression models. The Pabak index was used to assess the agreement in participants’ classification according to the fifths of Nova score and the fifths of dietary share of UPF. RESULTS The average dietary share of UPF increased linearly and significantly with the increase of the Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods. We found a substantial agreement in participants’ classification according to the fifths of the distribution of scores and the fifths of the dietary share of UPF (Pabak index = 0.67). Age was inversely associated with a relatively high frequency of UPF consumption (upper fifth of the distribution) for both score and dietary share of UPF. CONCLUSION The Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods, obtained in a quick and practical manner, shows a good potential in reflecting the dietary share of UPF in Brazil.
  • Ageism against older adults in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: an integrative review Review

    Silva, Marcela Fernandes; Silva, Diego Salvador Muniz da; Bacurau, Aldiane Gomes de Macedo; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Assumpção, Daniela de; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever os principais resultados de estudos sobre preconceito, estereotipia e discriminação relacionados à idade (ageismo) no contexto da pandemia da covid-19. MÉTODOS Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura sobre o ageismo no contexto da pandemia da covid-19, realizada entre maio e junho de 2020, a partir das seguintes bases de dados: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Web of Science (Thompson Reuters), Scopus (Elsevier Science), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) e Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO). RESULTADOS Foram analisadas 21 publicações que discorreram sobre o ageismo durante a pandemia, suas origens, consequências e implicações ético-políticas. As publicações identificadas são de natureza teórica com abordagem crítico-reflexiva, sendo 90,5% artigos opinativos (n = 19) e 9,5% de pesquisa (n = 2). Os principais resultados encontrados apontam críticas em relação à destinação de recursos e cuidados intensivos baseados exclusivamente no critério etário. São também apontados os impactos do isolamento social, o uso das tecnologias e mídias sociais e as relações intergeracionais no cenário da covid-19. CONCLUSÃO A maioria das publicações indicam que o ageismo sempre esteve presente, mas tornou-se mais evidente durante a pandemia da covid-19 como forma de discriminação contra idosos. Ressalta-se que discursos “ageistas” podem influenciar negativamente na vida dos idosos e causar impactos sociais e psicológicos prejudiciais.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To report the main results of studies on prejudice, stereotyping, and age-based discrimination (ageism) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS This is an integrative review of the literature on ageism in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, conducted between May and June 2020, with data collected from the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Web of Science (Thompson Reuters), Scopus (Elsevier Science), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) and Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO). RESULTS Twenty-one publications addressing ageism during the pandemics, its origins, consequences, and ethical and political implications were analyzed. All publications were theoretical with a critical/reflexive approach, being 90,5% opinion articles (n = 19) and 9,5% research (n = 2). The main findings indicate criticisms regarding resources allocation and intensive care based exclusively on age. The results also highlight the impacts of social isolation, the use of technologies and social media, and intergenerational relationships within the COVID-19 scenario. CONCLUSION According to most publications, although ageism has always been present, it became more evident during the COVID-19 pandemic as a form of discrimination against older adults. “Ageist” discourses may exert a negative influence in older adults’ lives, causing severe social and psychological impacts.
  • Factors associated with stress, anxiety, and depression during social distancing in Brazil Original Articles

    Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Souza, Gustavo Fonseca Albuquerque; Souza, Gabriela Albuquerque; Cordeiro, Ana Lorena Nascimento; Praciano, Gabriella Almeida Figueredo; Alves, Adricia Cristine de Souza; Santos, Alan Chaves dos; Silva Junior, José Roberto; Souza, Manuela Barbosa Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms of severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as their associated factors, among Brazilians during social distancing. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted in April/May 2020 with 3,200 Brazilians over 18 years old. Respondents’ sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using an online questionnaire, which also included the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess emotional symptoms. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. RESULTS Our results show the prevalence of severe/extreme stress was 21.5%, anxiety 19.4%, and depression 21.5%. In the final model, sociodemographic, clinical, and Covid-19-related factors were associated with severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression in Brazilians during social distancing due to the Covid-19 pandemic. We found the main factors associated with severe/extreme depression to be young women, brown, single, not religious, sedentary, presenting reduced leisure activities, history of anxiety and depression, increased medication use, and Covid-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION This study may help develop and systematically plan measures aimed to prevent, early identify, and properly manage clinical signs and symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression during the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Abortion after the Zika virus epidemic in Northeast Brazil Letters to the editor

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo; Madeiro, Alberto
  • Smoking prevalence and economic crisis in Brazil Original Articles

    Souza, Luis Eugenio de; Rasella, Davide; Barros, Rafael; Lisboa, Erick; Malta, Déborah; Mckee, Martin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of the 2015–2018 economic crisis on tobacco consumption in Brazil. METHODS This is an interrupted time series analysis conducted with data from 27 cities collected by VIGITEL, using linear regression models to account for first-order autocorrelation. Analyses were conducted based on gender, age group, and education level. RESULTS Smoking rates decreased between 2006 and 2018, decelerating after the crisis onset. Differently than women, men showed an immediate but transient increase in smoking, followed by a decelerated decrease. Those over 65 also showed increased smoking rates immediately after the economic crisis onset, but decline accelerated later on. In turn, we found a trend reversal among those aged 31–44. Rates also decreased among those with lower education levels, but decelerated among those with more years of schooling. CONCLUSION An economic crisis have varied impacts on the smoking habits of different population groups. Tobacco control policies should entail a detailed understanding of smoking epidemiology, especially during an economic crisis.
  • Factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in professionals working in sitting position Original Articles

    Lopes, Anália Rosário; Trelha, Celita Salmaso; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Reis, Roberta Alvarenga; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa; Santos, Claudia Benedita dos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVOS Estimar a prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares e analisar os fatores a eles associados em profissionais de setores administrativos que trabalham predominantemente na postura sentada. MÉTODOS Trata-se de estudo transversal com dados obtidos de 451 trabalhadores de instituição pública federal na região Sul do país. A variável dependente foi o número de sintomas osteomusculares nos últimos 12 meses, aferido utilizando-se o Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares. Foram investigadas 19 variáveis independentes, divididas em quatro categorias: características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, ocupacionais e de saúde. Foi realizada análise univariada e, na sequência, regressão múltipla de Poisson com variância robusta. As variáveis independentes foram inseridas em blocos com critério backward stepwise, considerando o valor para estatística de Wald igual a 0,20. As medidas de efeito foram expressas em aumento relativo (AR) no valor médio, sendo os dados analisados para um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS A prevalência estimada de sintomas osteomusculares nos últimos 12 meses foi de 90% (intervalo de confiança – IC95% 87–93). No modelo final da análise de regressão, as variáveis sexo feminino (AR = 14,75%), índice de capacidade para o trabalho baixo (AR = 100,02%) e moderado (AR = 64,06%), uso de medicamentos (AR = 48,06%) e circunferência da cintura em risco (AR = 15,59%) tiveram associação significativa com o aumento da média de sintomas; já a escolaridade com ensino técnico atuou como fator de proteção, reduzindo a média em 36,46%. CONCLUSÕES A alta prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares encontrada e os fatores associados indicam a necessidade de propor ações e cuidados específicos para essa população, como tratamento imediato dos sintomas e mudanças na organização e no ambiente laboral, a fim de alcançar equilíbrio e harmonia nas exigências do trabalho sentado prolongado e evitar o impacto dessa condição na saúde pública.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and analyze their associated factors in professionals from administrative sectors working predominantly in sitting position. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with data obtained from 451 workers from a federal public institution in Southern Brazil. The dependent variable was the number of musculoskeletal symptoms in the prior 12 months, measured using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. In the analyses, 19 independent variables were investigated, divided into four categories: sociodemographic, behavioral, occupational and health characteristics. Univariate analysis and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance were performed. The independent variables were inserted into blocks with stepwise backward criterion, considering the value for Wald statistics equal to 0.20. The effect measures were expressed in a relative increase (RI) in the mean value, and the data were analyzed for a 5% significance level. RESULTS The estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the prior 12 months was 90% (confidence interval – 95%CI 87–93). In the final model of regression analysis, the variables female gender (RI = 14.75%), low (RI = 100.02%) and moderate (RI = 64.06%) work ability index, use of medications (RI = 48.06%) and waist circumference at risk (RI = 15.59%) had a significant association with the increase in the mean number of symptoms; schooling with technical education acted as a protective factor, reducing the mean by 36.46%. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms found and the associated factors indicate the need to propose specific actions and care for this population, such as immediate treatment of symptoms and changes in the organization and work environment, to achieve balance and harmony in the demands of prolonged sitting work and avoid its impact effect of this condition on public health.
  • Body weight changes in the NutriNet Brasil cohort during the covid-19 pandemic Brief Communications

    Costa, Caroline dos Santos; Steele, Eurídice Martínez; Leite, Maria Alvim; Rauber, Fernanda; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Este estudo descreve modificações no peso corporal de participantes da coorte NutriNet Brasil (n = 14.259) ocorridas durante a pandemia de covid-19. Foram analisados dados informados em período anterior ao início da pandemia (26/01/2020 a 18/03/2020) e cerca de 6 meses após (14/09/2020 a 19/10/2020). O ganho de peso ≥ 2 kg alcançou 19,7% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associado ao sexo masculino, à menor escolaridade e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associado à idade. A perda de peso ≥ 2kg alcançou 15,2% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associada ao sexo masculino e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associada à idade.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study describes body weight changes among participants of the NutriNet Brasil cohort (n = 14,259) during the covid-19 pandemic. We analyzed data reported before the pandemic onset (01/26/2020 to 03/18/2020) and about six months after (09/14/2020 to 10/19/2020). Our results show that 19.7% of the participants gained ≥ 2 kg. Weight gain was directly associated with male gender, lower education, and previous presence of overweight, and inversely associated with age. In turn, 15.2% lost ≥ 2kg, being directly associated with male gender and previous presence of overweight and inversely associated with age.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br