Sort publications by
Revista de Saúde Pública, Volume: 57, Published: 2023
  • Association among race/color, gender, and intrinsic capacity: results from the ELSI-Brazil study Original Articles

    Plácido, Jessica; Marinho, Valeska; Ferreira, José Vinicius; Teixeira, Ivan Abdalla; Costa, Erico Castro; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate associations among race/color, gender, and intrinsic capacity (IC) (total and by domains) in middle-aged and older adults from a Brazilian cohort. As a secondary objective, we investigate these associations across Brazilian regions. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted with baseline data from the 2015–2016 Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil). IC was investigated via cognitive (verbal fluency), physical (gait velocity/handgrip), and psychosocial (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) domains. Moreover, IC sensory domain was evaluated via self-reported sensory disease diagnoses (vision and/or hearing impairment) and race/color was identified via self-reported criteria. RESULTS We evaluated a total of 9,070 participants (aged ≥ 50 years). Black and Brown participants were 80% and 41% more likely to show a worse IC cognitive domain than white controls, respectively (OR = 1.80, 95%CI: 1.42–2.28, p < 0.001 and OR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.21–1.65, p < 0.001). Moreover, Black and Brown women had almost a threefold greater chance of showing a worse IC than white men (OR = 2.91, 95%CI: 1.89–4.47, p < 0.001 and OR = 2.51, 95%CI: 2.09 - 3.02, p < 0.001) and a 62% (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.02–2.57) and 32% (OR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.10–1.57) greater risk of falling below our IC score cutoff point than white women. We found the greatest differences in the Brazilian South, whereas its North showed the lowest associations among race/color, gender, and IC. CONCLUSION IC racial and gender disparities reinforce the need for public health policies to guarantee equality during aging. Promoting greater access to good health care requires understanding how racism and sexism can contribute to health inequities and their consequences in different Brazilian regions.
  • Are parental physical activity and social support associated with adolescents’ meeting physical activity recommendations? Original Articles

    Camargo, Edina Maria de; López-Gil, José Francisco; Piola, Thiago Silva; Mota, Jorge; Campos, Wagner de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To verify whether parental physical activity and social support are associated with adolescents meeting physical activity recommendations. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study that selected 1,390 adolescents (59.6% girls) from Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), QAFA (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents), and ASAFA (Social Support for Physical Activity Practice in Adolescents) questionnaires were applied. Binary logistic regression was used to test the relationship among the study variables. RESULTS For boys, having parents who “always attend” (OR = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.16–3.32) and having parents or legal guardians who meet the PA recommendations (OR = 2.78; 95%CI: 1.76–4.38) were associated with meeting the PA recommendations. Odds were greater after adjusting for socioeconomic status (OR = 3.47; 95%CI: 1.73–6.96) and schooling level (OR = 4.20; 95%CI: 1.96–9.02). For girls, those with parents or legal guardians who “sometimes encourage them” (OR = 0.61; 95%CI: 0.37–0.98) had lower odds of meeting PA recommendations. These odds were higher after adjusting for socioeconomic status (OR = 2.11; 95%CI: 1.36–3.29) and schooling level (OR = 4.30; 95%CI: 2.41–7.69). CONCLUSIONS Boys and girls were more likely to meet PA recommendations daily by having parents who meet PA recommendations than by receiving parental social support. These results could help establish future interventions aimed at modifying behaviors related to PA in adolescents.
  • Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay Original Articles

    von Seehausen, Mariana Pujól; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding during maternity hospital stay (outcome) and to analyze the association between delivery in a Baby-Friendly Hospital (BFH) and the outcome. The hypothesis is that accreditation to this program improves exclusive breastfeeding during maternity hospital stay. Exclusive breastfeeding is essential in reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality. METHODS This study is based on secondary data collected by the “Birth in Brazil: National Survey into Labour and Birth”, a population-based study, conducted with 21,086 postpartum women, from February 1, 2011, to October 31, 2012, in 266 hospitals from all five Brazilian regions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted mostly within the first 24 hours after birth, regarding individual and gestational characteristics, prenatal care, delivery, newborn’s characteristics, and breastfeeding at birth. A theoretical model was created, allocating the exposure variables in three levels based on their proximity to the outcome. This hierarchical conceptual model was applied to perform a multiple logistic regression (with 95%CI and p < 0.05). RESULTS In this study, 76.0% of the babies were exclusively breastfed from birth until the interview. Babies born in public (AOR = 1.73; 95%CI: 1.10–2.87), mixed (AOR = 2.48; 95%CI: 1.35–4.53) and private (AOR = 5.54; 95%CI: 2.38–12.45) BFHs were more likely to be exclusively breastfed during maternity hospital stay than those born in non–BFHs, as well as those born by vaginal birth (AOR = 2.16; 95%CI: 1.79–2.61), with adolescent mothers (AOR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.47–2.26) or adults up to 34 years old (AOR =1 .31; 95%CI: 1.13–1.52), primiparous women (AOR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.34–1.70), and mothers living in the Northern region of Brazil (AOR = 1.99; 95%CI: 1.14–3.49). CONCLUSIONS The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative promotes exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay regarding individual and hospital differences.
  • Validation of surgical care quality indicators in the Brazilian Unified Health System Original Articles

    Caldas, Anna Cláudia Sales Gomes; Araújo, Rafael Santiago de; Medeiros, Paulo José; Freitas, Marise Reis de; Aledo, Victoriano Soria; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Validar um conjunto de indicadores para monitoramento da qualidade dos procedimentos cirúrgicos no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). MÉTODOS Estudo de validação desenvolvido em 5 etapas: 1) revisão de literatura; 2) priorização de indicadores; 3) validação de conteúdo dos indicadores por método de consenso RAND/UCLA; 4) estudo piloto para análise da confiabilidade; e 5) desenvolvimento de instrutivo para tabulação dos indicadores de resultado para monitoramento via sistemas de informações oficiais. RESULTADOS A partir da revisão de literatura, foram identificados 217 indicadores de qualidade cirúrgica. Os indicadores excluídos foram: indicadores baseados em evidências científicas inferiores a 1A, similares, específicos, que correspondiam a eventos sentinelas; e aqueles que não se aplicavam ao contexto do SUS. Foram submetidos ao consenso de especialistas 26 indicadores com alto nível de evidência científica. Foram validados 22 indicadores, dos quais 14 indicadores de processo e 8 indicadores de resultado com índice de validação de conteúdo ≥80%. Dos indicadores de processo validados, 6 foram considerados confiáveis substancialmente (Coeficiente de Kappa entre 0,6 e 0,8; p < 0,05) e 2 tiveram confiabilidade quase perfeita (coeficiente de Kappa > 0,8, p < 0,05), quando analisada a concordância interavaliador. Foi possível mensurar e estabelecer mecanismo de tabulação para TabWin para 7 indicadores de resultado. CONCLUSÃO O estudo contribui com o desenvolvimento de um conjunto de indicadores cirúrgicos potencialmente eficazes para o monitoramento da qualidade do cuidado e segurança do paciente nos serviços hospitalares do SUS.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a set of indicators for monitoring the quality of surgical procedures in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS Validation study developed in 5 stages: 1) literature review; 2) prioritization of indicators; 3) content validation of indicators by RAND/UCLA consensus method; 4) pilot study for reliability analysis; and 5) development of instruction for tabulation of outcome indicators for monitoring via official information systems. RESULTS From the literature review, 217 indicators of surgical quality were identified. The excluded indicators were: those based on scientific evidence lower than 1A, similar, specific, which corresponded to sentinel events; and those that did not apply to the SUS context. Twenty-six indicators with a high level of scientific evidence were submitted to expert consensus. Twenty-two indicators were validated, of which 14 process indicators and 8 outcome indicators with content validation index ≥80%. Of the validated process indicators, 6 were considered substantially reliable (Kappa coefficient between 0.6 and 0.8; p < 0.05) and 2 had almost perfect reliability (Kappa coefficient > 0.8, p < 0.05), when the inter-rater agreement was analyzed. One could measure and establish tabulation mechanism for TabWin for 7 outcome indicators. CONCLUSION The study contributes to the development of a set of potentially effective surgical indicators for monitoring the quality of care and patient safety in SUS hospital services.
  • Beyond access to medication: the role of SUS and the characteristics of HIV care in Brazil Original Articles

    Alves, Ana Maroso; Santos, Angélica Carreira dos; Kumow, Aline; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Helena, Ernani Tiaraju de Santa; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistella

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a composição público-privada da assistência em HIV no Brasil e o perfil organizacional da extensa rede de serviços públicos. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados da Coorte Qualiaids-BR, que reúne dados dos sistemas nacionais de informações clínicas e laboratoriais de pessoas com 15 anos ou mais com primeira dispensação de terapia antirretroviral, entre 2015–2018, e informações dos serviços do SUS de acompanhamento clínico-laboratorial do HIV, produzidas pelo inquérito Qualiaids. O sistema de acompanhamento foi definido pelo número de exames de carga viral solicitados por algum serviço do SUS: acompanhamento no sistema privado – nenhum registro; acompanhamento no SUS – dois ou mais registros; acompanhamento indefinido – um registro. Os serviços do SUS foram caracterizados como ambulatórios, atenção básica e sistema prisional, segundo autoclassificação dos respondentes ao inquérito Qualiaids (72,9%); para os não respondentes (27,1%) a classificação baseou-se nos termos presentes nos nomes dos serviços. RESULTADOS No período, 238.599 pessoas com 15 anos ou mais iniciaram a terapia antirretroviral no Brasil, das quais, 69% receberam acompanhamento no SUS, 21,7% no sistema privado e 9,3% tiveram o sistema indefinido. Entre os acompanhados no SUS, 93,4% foram atendidos em serviços do tipo ambulatório, 5% em serviços de atenção básica e 1% no sistema prisional. CONCLUSÃO No Brasil o tratamento antirretroviral é fornecido exclusivamente pelo SUS, que também é responsável pelo acompanhamento clínico-laboratorial da terapia da maior parte das pessoas em serviços ambulatoriais. O estudo só foi possível porque o SUS mantêm registros e informações públicas acerca do acompanhamento em HIV. Não há nenhum dado disponível para o sistema privado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the public-private composition of HIV care in Brazil and the organizational profile of the extensive network of public healthcare facilities. METHODS Data from the Qualiaids-BR Cohort were used, which gathers data from national systems of clinical and laboratory information on people aged 15 years or older with the first dispensation of antiretroviral therapy between 2015–2018, and information from SUS healthcare facilities for clinical-laboratory follow-up of HIV, produced by the Qualiaids survey. The follow-up system was defined by the number of viral load tests requested by any SUS healthcare facility: follow-up in the private system – no record; follow-up at SUS – two or more records; undefined follow-up – one record. SUS healthcare facilities were characterized as outpatient clinics, primary care and prison system, according to the respondents’ self-classification in the Qualiaids survey (72.9%); for non-respondents (27.1%) the classification was based on the terms present in the names of the healthcare facilities. RESULTS During the period, 238,599 people aged 15 years or older started antiretroviral therapy in Brazil, of which 69% were followed-up at SUS, 21.7% in the private system and 9.3% had an undefined system. Among those followed-up at SUS, 93.4% received care in outpatient clinics, 5% in primary care facilities and 1% in the prison system. CONCLUSION In Brazil, antiretroviral treatment is provided exclusively by SUS, which is also responsible for clinical and laboratory follow-up for most people in outpatient clinics. The study was only possible because SUS maintains records and public information about HIV care. There is no data available for the private system.
  • Recent changes in trends of mortality from cervical cancer in Southeastern Brazil Original Articles

    Luizaga, Carolina Terra de Moraes; Jardim, Beatriz Cordeiro; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Eluf Neto, José; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar as tendências da mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero nos estados da região Sudeste e compará-las com o Brasil e demais regiões entre 1980 e 2020. MÉTODOS Estudo de série temporal com base nos dados do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade. Os dados de óbito foram corrigidos por redistribuição proporcional das mortes por causas mal definidas e por câncer de útero de porção não especificada. Foram calculadas taxas padronizadas por idade e específicas por faixas etárias alvo de rastreamento (25–39 anos; 40–64 anos) e não alvo (65 anos ou mais). Variações percentuais anuais foram estimadas por modelo de regressão linear com pontos de quebra. A cobertura do exame Papanicolaou no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) foi avaliada entre 2009 e 2020 segundo faixa etária e localidade. RESULTADOS Foram verificados aumentos das taxas de mortalidade corrigidas tanto em 1980 como em 2020 em todas as regiões, com incrementos mais evidentes no início da série. Houve queda da mortalidade em todo o país entre 1980–2020, entretanto, o estado de São Paulo apresentou discreta tendência de aumento em 2014–2020 (APC=1,237; IC95% 0,046–2,443). Destaca-se o incremento da tendência no grupo de 25–39 anos em todas as localidades de estudo, mostrando-se mais acentuado na região Sudeste em 2013–2020 (APC=5,072; IC95% 3,971–6,185). As taxas de cobertura de rastreamento foram mais elevadas em São Paulo e mais baixas no Rio de Janeiro, com queda consistente a partir de 2012 em todas as idades. CONCLUSÕES São Paulo é o primeiro estado brasileiro a apresentar inversão de tendência da mortalidade por câncer de colo do útero. As mudanças nos padrões de mortalidade identificadas neste estudo apontam para a necessidade de reorganização do atual programa de rastreamento, que deve ser aperfeiçoado para garantir alta cobertura, qualidade e seguimento adequado de todas as mulheres com exames alterados.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the trends of cervical cancer mortality in Brazilian Southeastern states, and to compare them to Brazil and other regions between 1980 and 2020. METHODS Time series study based on data from the Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade (Brazilian Mortality Information System). Death data were corrected by proportional redistribution of deaths from ill-defined causes and cervical cancer of unspecified portion. Age-standardized and age-specific rates were calculated by screening target (25–39 years; 40–64 years) and non-target (65 years or older) age groups. Annual percentage changes (APC) were estimated by linear regression model with breakpoints. The coverage of Pap Smear exam in the Unified Health System (SUS) was evaluated between 2009 and 2020 according to age group and locality. RESULTS There were increases in corrected mortality rates both in 1980 and in 2020 in all regions, with most evident increments at the beginning of the series. There was a decrease in mortality nationwide between 1980–2020; however, the state of São Paulo showed a discrete upward trend in 2014–2020 (APC=1.237; 95%CI 0.046–2.443). Noteworthy is the trend increment in the 25–39 year-old group in all study localities, being sharper in the Southeast region in 2013–2020 (APC=5.072; 95%CI 3.971–6.185). Screening coverage rates were highest in São Paulo and lowest in Rio de Janeiro, with a consistent decline from 2012 onwards at all ages. CONCLUSIONS São Paulo is the first Brazilian state to show a reversal trend in mortality from cervical cancer. The changes in mortality patterns identified in this study point to the need for reorganization of the current screening program, which should be improved to ensure high coverage, quality, and adequate follow-up of all women with altered test results.
  • Considerations for an urban health perspective in Chile from the “Quiero Mi Barrio” program Original Articles

    Olave-Müller, Paola; López-Contreras, Natalia; Kocher, Patricio Alvarez; Jirón, Paola; del Campo, Camilo Bass; la Vega, Soledad Burgos de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To explore the perceptions of residents regarding their health and well-being in areas of personal and collective life, in relation to the experience of urban transformation originated by the Program for the Recovery of Neighborhoods in Chile “Quiero mi Barrio” (PQMB). METHODS Qualitative study conducted in eight neighborhoods, which were subject to interventions between 2012–2015, located in seven communes of Chile: Arica, Renca, Padre Las Casas, Villarrica, Castro, Ancud. Eighteen focus groups and 27 interviews were conducted between 2018 and 2019. A content analysis was carried out following the social determinants of health approach. RESULTS Material conditions of neighborhood infrastructure and psychosocial determinants were the main emerging and predominant categories in the residents’ narratives. The new or improved infrastructure enhances sports and playing practices, as well as contributes to the feeling of safety and to the improvement of walkable spaces, support networks, socialization and dynamization of social organization. However, neglected aspects were visualized. The program had limitations of structural character that operate locally, such as aging, individual lifestyles that limit participation, and contexts of insecurity, especially in neighborhoods victims of drug trafficking. CONCLUSIONS The urban changes originated by the PQMB included improvements in neighborhood infrastructure and in the psychosocial environment, which are perceived by residents as beneficial aspects and promoters of collective wellbeing. However, global phenomena, and those related to the program, limit its scope and have repercussions on the perception of overall wellbeing of the residents in the neighborhoods. To go deeper into how this or other state neighborhood programs may or may not favor equitable access of different social groups, or which works may be better used by the groups, is an aspect that enhances the integral action with other sectors and local actors in the territories.
  • Erratum

  • Construction of a logical model of the line of care for people with chronic kidney disease Original Articles

    Nakata, Liliane Cristina; Feltrin, Aline Fiori dos Santos; Ferreira, Janise Braga Barros

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Construir e validar um modelo lógico da linha de cuidado da pessoa com doença renal crônica. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo de caráter descritivo e com abordagem qualitativa, sendo feitas pesquisa documental e análise de dados primários coletados em entrevistas com informantes-chave, realizadas de maio a setembro de 2019, na Região de Saúde do Aquífero Guarani, pertencente ao Departamento Regional de Saúde 13. A partir do referencial teórico proposto por McLaughlin e Jordan, foram seguidas cinco etapas: a coleta de informações relevantes; a descrição do problema e do contexto; a definição dos elementos do modelo lógico; e a construção e validação. RESULTADOS O modelo lógico foi organizado em três dimensões assistenciais – atenção primária à saúde, atenção especializada e atenção de alta complexidade – compostas pelos componentes de estrutura, processo e resultado. CONCLUSÃO O modelo lógico construído tem potencial para contribuir com a avaliação da linha de cuidado da pessoa com doença renal crônica, ao visar o alcance de melhores resultados no manejo dessa doença, o que favorece tanto o seu portador quanto o sistema de saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To build and validate a logical model of the line of care for people with chronic kidney disease. METHODS This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, with documentary research and analysis of primary data collected in interviews with key informants, carried out from May to September 2019, in the Guarani Aquifer Health Region, belonging to the Regional Health Department 13. Based on the theoretical framework proposed by McLaughlin and Jordan, five stages were followed: collection of relevant information; description of the problem and context; defining the elements of the logical model; construction and validation. RESULTS The logical model was organized into three care dimensions – primary health care, specialized care and high complexity care – composed of structure, process and result components. CONCLUSION The constructed logical model has the potential to contribute to the assessment of the line of care for people with chronic kidney disease, in order to achieve better results in the management of this disease, something that favors both the patient and the health system.
  • Importance of vaccination against human papillomavirus in a rural settlement in Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul Original Articles

    Souza, Zilda Alves de; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tozetti, Inês Aparecida; Lima, Marcella Naglis de Oliveira; Souza, Milena Sonchine de; Farias, Marisa de Fátima Lomba de; Scandola, Estela Márcia Rondina; Padovani, Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Compreender as percepções dos profissionais de saúde acerca da vacinação contra o papilomavírus humano (HPV) no Complexo de assentamentos Santa Mônica, em Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul. MÉTODOS Foram utilizadas metodologias quanti-qualitativas, consultas em cartões vacinais, registros de agente comunitários de saúde e a técnica de grupo focal. Foram analisados os principais fatores de hesitação e recusa vacinal, bem como as estratégias da equipe de saúde para o processo de imunização contra o HPV, de junho a agosto de 2018. RESULTADOS De 121 crianças e adolescentes, 81 (66,94%) receberam o esquema vacinal completo. A cobertura vacinal completa feminina foi de 73,17% (60/82) e a masculina de 53,8% (21/39). Observou-se que, embora sejam adotadas estratégias para a promoção da vacina, como ações volantes, o público encontra-se resistente devido ao conhecimento superficial sobre a vacina e sua utilização em faixa etária precoce, mostrando-se suscetível à influência negativa da mídia e aos tabus da sociedade. Além disso, dificuldades quanto ao uso do cartão do Sistema Único de Saúde e a escassez de profissionais também foram observadas. CONCLUSÃO Os resultados justificam a cobertura vacinal abaixo da meta e reforçam a necessidade de fortalecimento da estratégia de saúde da família, bem como da educação permanente e continuada dos profissionais, a fim de aumentar a confiança dos pais e a adesão à vacinação.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To understand health professionals’ perceptions about vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in the Santa Mônica rural settlement in Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul. METHODS Quantitative and qualitative methodologies, consultations on vaccination cards, records of community health agents and the focus group technique were used. The main factors of hesitation and vaccine refusal were analyzed, as well as the health team’s strategies for the process of immunization against HPV, from June to August 2018. RESULTS Of 121 children and adolescents, 81 (66.94%) received the complete vaccination schedule. Complete vaccination coverage for women was 73.17% (60/82) and for men, 53.8% (21/39). It was observed that, although strategies are adopted for vaccine promotion, such as mobile actions, the public is resistant due to superficial knowledge about the vaccine and its use in an early age group, showing itself to be susceptible to the negative influence of the media and to society’s taboos. In addition, difficulties regarding the use of the Unified Health System card and the shortage of professionals were also observed. CONCLUSION The results explain the immunization coverage below the target and reinforce the need to strengthen the family health strategy, as well as the permanent and continuing education of professionals, in order to increase parental confidence and adherence to vaccination.
  • Birth weight and bone mineral density at 18–19 years: birth cohort 1997–1998 Original Articles

    Araújo, Allanne Pereira; Barbosa, Janaina Maiana Abreu; Carvalho, Carolina Abreu de; Viola, Poliana Cristina de Almeida Fonseca; Ribeiro, Cecilia Claudia Costa; Batista, Rosangela Fernandes Lucena; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a associação entre o peso ao nascer e a densidade mineral óssea (DMO) na adolescência. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte de nascimentos em São Luís, Maranhão, utilizando dados de dois momentos: ao nascimento e aos 18–19 anos. A exposição foi o peso ao nascer em gramas, analisado de forma contínua. O desfecho foi a DMO, utilizando o índice Z-escore (corpo inteiro) medido pela densitometria por dupla emissão de raios X (DEXA). Foi construído modelo teórico em gráficos acíclicos direcionados para identificar o conjunto mínimo de variáveis de ajuste – renda familiar, a mãe saber ler e escrever à época do nascimento, realização de pré-natal, tabagismo durante a gestação e paridade – para avaliar a associação entre o peso ao nascer e a densidade mineral óssea na adolescência. Utilizou-se regressão linear múltipla no software Stata 14.0. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS Dos 2.112 adolescentes, 8,2% apresentaram baixo peso ao nascer e 2,8% apresentaram DMO considerada baixa para a idade. O Z-escore médio de corpo inteiro foi de 0,19 (± 1,00). O maior peso ao nascer foi associado de forma linear e direta aos valores de DMO na adolescência (Coef.: 0,10; IC95% 0,02–0,18), mesmo após ajuste para as variáveis renda familiar (Coef.: -0,33; IC95% -0,66–0,33) e a mãe saber ler e escrever (Coef.: 0,23; IC95% 0,03–0,43). CONCLUSÕES Apesar de a associação ter sido atenuada após ajuste das variáveis, o peso ao nascer está associado de forma positiva e linear à DMO na adolescência.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between birth weight and bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescence. METHODS A birth cohort study in São Luís, Maranhão, using data from two moments: at birth and at 18–19 years. Exposure was the birth weight in grams, continuously analyzed. The outcome was BMD, using the Z-score index (whole body) measured by double X-ray densitometry (Dexa). A theoretical model was constructed in acyclic graphs to identify the minimum set of adjustment variables – household income, the mother knowing how to read and write at the time of birth, prenatal care, tobacco use during pregnancy, and parity — to evaluate the association between birth weight and bone mineral density in adolescence. Multiple linear regression was used in Stata 14.0 software. A 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS From 2,112 adolescents, 8.2% had low birth weight and 2.8% had a low BMD for their age. The mean full-body Z-score was 0.19 (± 1.00). The highest birth weight was directly and linearly associated with BMD values in adolescence (Coef.: 0.10; 95%CI: 0.02–0.18), even after adjustment for the variables household income (Coef.: -0.33; 95%CI: -0.66–0.33) and the mother knowing how to read and write (Coef.: 0.23%; 95%CI: 0.03–0.43). CONCLUSION Although after adjusting the variables the association attenuated, birth weight positively and linearly relates to BMD in adolescence.
  • Prevalence of flu-like syndrome in healthcare workers in Brazil: a national study, 2020 Original Articles

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Freguglia, Ricardo da Silva; Vieira, Marcel de Toledo; Marioni, Larissa da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of reported symptoms of flu-like syndrome (FS) among HCW and compare HCW and non-HCW on the chance of reporting these symptoms, this study analyzed data of a population-based survey conducted in Brazil. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with self-reported data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD Covid-19) from May 2020. The authors analyzed a probability sample of 125,179 workers, aged 18 to 65, with monthly income lower than US$ 3 500. The variable HCW or non-HCW was the covariate of interest and having reported FS symptoms or not was the outcome variable. Authors tested interactions of HCW with other covariates. A logit model – when controlling for sociodemographic, employment, and geographic characteristics – investigated the chance of HCW reporting FS compared to non-HCW. RESULTS HCW have a significant effect (odds ratio of 1.369) on reporting FS symptoms when compared to non-HCW. HCW account for 4.17% of the sample, with a higher frequency of FS (3.38%) than observed for non-HCW (2.43%). Female, non-white and older individuals had higher chance to report FS. CONCLUSIONS The HCW had a higher chance of reporting symptoms than non-HCW aged over 18 years in the labor force. These results emphasize guidelines for preventive measures to reduce workplace exposures in the healthcare facilities. The prevalence is disproportionately affecting HCW women and HCW non-whites. In the regions North and Northeast the steeper progression is consistent with the hypothesis of socioeconomic factors, and it explains the greater prevalence in HCW and non-HCW living in those territories.
  • Factors of abandonment of tuberculosis treatment in the public health network

    Perlaza, Claudia Lorena; Mosquera, Freiser Eceomo Cruz; Murillo, Luisa Maria Ramirez; Sepulveda, Valentina Becerra; Arenas, Cindy Dayan Córdoba

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN Este estudio determina los factores de abandono al tratamiento de la tuberculosis en la red pública de salud de Cali, Colombia, durante los años 2016 a 2018. Se realizó una investigación operativa de casos y controles en la que se incluyeron 224 pacientes con tuberculosis (112 abandonaron el tratamiento y 112 lograron completarlo). Se encuentra que el abandono del tratamiento para la tuberculosis está impulsado por factores relacionados con el individuo y los servicios de salud que facilitan la no adherencia y los alejan de la atención brindada en las instituciones médicas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study determines the factors of abandonment of tuberculosis treatment in the public health network of Cali, Colombia, during years 2016 to 2018. We conducted an operational case-control investigation including 224 patients with tuberculosis (112 abandoned treatment and 112 completed it). We found that treatment abandonment for tuberculosis is driven by factors related to the individuals and health services that facilitate non-adherence and drive them away from the care provided in medical institutions.
  • Consumption of alcoholic beverages in Brazil: estimation of prevalence ratios – 2013 and 2019 Original Articles

    Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves de; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Silva, Everton Nunes da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVOS Estimar as prevalências de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas semanal, mensal e abusivo no Brasil em 2013 e 2019, comparar as estimativas do período e estimar a magnitude das diferenças. MÉTODOS Análise dos dados do consumo de bebidas alcoólicas na população adulta (18 anos ou mais) da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), 2013 e 2019. O número de entrevistados em 2013 foi de 60.202 e, em 2019, de 88.531. As amostras foram caracterizadas segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, de saúde e de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas; e foram comparadas as diferenças de proporções no período, por meio do teste do c2 de Pearson, com aproximação de Rao-Scott e nível de significância de 5%. Foram estimados modelos multivariados de regressão de Poisson para as variáveis de desfecho de consumo mensal, semanal e abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas, com o intuito de estimar a magnitude das diferenças entre as estimativas da PNS 2013 e 2019, por meio da razão de prevalência (RP). Os modelos foram ajustados por sexo e faixa etária e estratificados por sexo e região demográfica. RESULTADOS Houve diferença da distribuição da população segundo raça, ocupação, renda, faixa etária, estado civil e escolaridade. Houve aumento do consumo de álcool para todas as variáveis desfecho, com exceção do consumo semanal em homens. A razão de prevalência do consumo semanal foi de 1,02 (IC95% 1,014–1,026), nas mulheres a RP foi de 1,05 (IC95% 1,04–1,06). As maiores razões de prevalência na população geral e por sexo ocorrem para o consumo abusivo. O aumento do consumo semanal por região ocorreu no Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. CONCLUSÕES O homem é o principal consumidor de álcool no Brasil, as razões de prevalência tanto em homens quanto em mulheres demonstram que houve aumento do consumo mensal, semanal e abusivo no período pesquisado, destaca-se que as mulheres têm aumentado o padrão de consumo com maior intensidade do que os homens.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of weekly, monthly and abusive alcohol consumption in Brazil in 2013 and 2019, compare the period estimates, and verify the magnitude of the differences. METHODS Analysis of data on alcohol consumption in the adult population (18 years or older) from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013 and 2019. The number of interviewees in 2013 was 60,202 and 88,531 in 2019. The samples were characterized according to demographic, socioeconomic, health, and alcohol consumption variables and differences in proportions in the period were compared using Pearson’s c2 test, with Rao-Scott approximation and a 5% significance level. Multivariate Poisson regression models were estimated for the outcome variables of monthly, weekly and abusive consumption of alcoholic beverages, in order to estimate the magnitude of the differences between the 2013 and 2019 PNS estimates, using the prevalence ratio (PR). Models were adjusted per sex and age group and stratified per sex and demographic region. RESULTS There was a difference in the distribution of the population according to race, occupation, income, age group, marital status, and education. There was an increase in alcohol consumption for all outcome variables, with the exception of weekly consumption in males. The PR of weekly consumption was 1.02 (95%CI 1.014–1.026), and in females the PR was 1.05 (95%CI 1.04–1.06). The highest PRs in the general population and per sex occur for abusive consumption. The increase in weekly consumption per region occurred in the South, Southeast, and Central-West regions. CONCLUSIONS Males are the main alcohol consumers in Brazil; the PRs for both males and females show that there was an increase in monthly, weekly and abusive consumption in the research period; it is noteworthy that females have increased their consumption pattern with greater intensity than males.
  • Negative self-perception of hearing and depression in older adults: a population-based study Original Articles

    Paiva, Karina Mary de; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Oliveira, Pamela Lopes de; Hillesheim, Danúbia; Haas, Patrícia; Medeiros, Paulo Adão de; d’Orsi, Eleonora

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a associação entre a autopercepção negativa da audição e a depressão em idosos do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com dados da terceira onda do estudo EpiFloripa Idoso 2017/19, de coorte de base populacional de idosos (60+). Participaram desta onda 1.335 idosos. A variável dependente foi a depressão autorreferida e a exposição principal foi a autopercepção auditiva (negativa; positiva). Tanto para a análise bruta (bivariada) quanto para a ajustada, a odds ratio (OR) foi utilizada como medida de associação e estimada por meio da análise de Regressão Logística Binária. A variável de exposição foi ajustada pelas covariáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde. Adotou-se o valor de p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS A prevalência da autopercepção negativa da audição e depressão foi de 26,0% e 21,8%, respectivamente. Na análise ajustada, idosos com autopercepção negativa da audição apresentaram 1,96 vezes mais chance de referirem depressão quando comparados aos idosos com autopercepção positiva da audição (p = 0,002). CONCLUSÃO A associação encontrada entre a autopercepção negativa auditiva e a depressão reflete a importância de rever as ações de atenção à saúde do idoso, incorporando questões relacionadas à audição para a garantia da atenção integral a esta parcela crescente da população.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between negative self-perception of hearing and depression in older adults in Southern Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted with data from the third wave of the EpiFloripa Idoso 2017/19 study, a population-based cohort of older adults (60+). A total of 1,335 older adults participated in this wave. The dependent variable was self-reported depression, and the main exposure was self-perception of hearing (negative; positive). For both the crude (bivariate) and adjusted analysis, the odds ratio (OR) was used as a measure of association and estimated by means of binary logistic regression analysis. The exposure variable was adjusted by sociodemographic and health covariates. A p value < 0.05 was adopted as statistically significant. RESULTS The prevalence of negative self-perception of hearing and depression was 26.0% and 21.8%, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, the older adults with negative self-perception of hearing were 1.96 times more likely to report depression when compared to the ones with positive self-perception of hearing (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION The association between negative self-perception of hearing and depression reflects the importance of reviewing health care actions for older adults, incorporating hearing-related issues, to ensure comprehensive care for this growing segment of the population.
  • Consumption of ultra-processed foods in Brazil: distribution and temporal evolution 2008–2018 Original Articles

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Cruz, Gabriela Lopes da; Silva, Karina Augusta Aparecida Nogueira; Grassi, Ana Giulia Forjaz; Andrade, Giovanna Calixto; Rauber, Fernanda; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar fatores sociodemográficos associados ao consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados e a evolução temporal do consumo no Brasil entre 2008 e 2018. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados do consumo alimentar de indivíduos com idade ≥ 10 anos das Pesquisas de Orçamentos Familiares (POF) 2008–2009 e 2017–2018. Os alimentos foram agrupados segundo a classificação Nova. Modelos de regressão linear brutos e ajustados foram utilizados para avaliar a associação entre características sociodemográficas e o consumo de ultraprocessados em 2017–2018 e a variação temporal de seu consumo entre 2008 e 2018. RESULTADOS Alimentos ultraprocessados representaram 19,7% das calorias em 2017–2018. A análise ajustada mostrou que seu consumo foi maior no sexo feminino ( versus masculino) e nas regiões Sul e Sudeste ( versus Norte), e menor em negros ( versus brancos) e na área rural ( versus urbana), além de diminuir com o aumento da idade e aumentar com escolaridade e renda. O consumo de ultraprocessados aumentou 1,02 pontos percentuais (pp) de 2008–2009 a 2017–2018, sendo este aumento mais expressivo em homens (+1,59 pp), negros (+2,04 pp), indígenas (+5,96 pp), na área rural (+2,43 pp), naqueles com até 4 anos de estudo (+1,18 pp), no quinto mais baixo de renda (+3,54 pp) e nas regiões Norte (+2,95 pp) e Nordeste (+3,11 pp). Por outro lado, seu consumo se reduziu na maior faixa de escolaridade (-3,30 pp) e no quinto mais alto de renda (-1,65 pp). CONCLUSÕES Os segmentos socioeconômicos e demográficos que tiveram menor consumo relativo de ultraprocessados em 2017–2018 são justamente os que apresentaram um aumento mais expressivo na análise temporal, apontando para uma tendência de padronização nacional em um patamar de consumo mais alto.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate sociodemographic factors associated with the consumption of ultra-processed foods and the temporal evolution of their consumption in Brazil between 2008 and 2018. METHODS The study used food consumption data of individuals aged ≥ 10 years from 2008–2009 and 2017–2018 Pesquisas de Orçamentos Familiares (POF - Household Budget Surveys), grouping the foods according to the Nova classification. We used crude and adjusted linear regression models to assess the association between sociodemographic characteristics and consumption of ultra-processed foods in 2017–2018 and the temporal variation in their consumption between 2008 and 2018. RESULTS Ultra-processed foods accounted for 19.7% of calories in 2017–2018. The adjusted analysis showed that their consumption was higher in women (versus men) and the South and Southeast regions (versus North) and lower in blacks (versus whites) and rural areas (versus urban), in addition to decreasing with the increased age and increasing with higher education and income. Consumption of ultra-processed foods increased by 1.02 percentage points (pp) from 2008–2009 to 2017–2018. This increase was significantly higher among men (+1.59 pp), black people (+2.04 pp), indigenous (+5.96 pp), in the rural area (+2.43 pp), those with up to 4 years of schooling (+1.18 pp), in the lowest income quintile (+3.54 pp), and the North (+2.95 pp) and Northeast (+3.11 pp) regions. On the other hand, individuals in the highest level of schooling (-3.30 pp) and the highest income quintile (-1.65 pp) reduced their consumption. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic and demographic segments with the lowest relative consumption of ultra-processed foods in 2017–2018 are precisely those that showed the most significant increase in the temporal analysis, pointing to a trend towards national standardization at a higher level of consumption.
  • Permanent health education in the context of obesity: a scoping review

    Magalhães, Carolina Gusmão; Ceccim, Ricardo Burg; Silva, Lígia Amparo Santos da; Santos, Verena Macedo; Pereira, Emile Miranda; Santos, Ana Artur Francisco Mussa; Xavier Júnior, Gesner Franscisco; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To map the international literature on Permanent Health Education initiatives to care for people with obesity. METHODS In total, six databases were searched without any language or publication period restriction according to the Joana Briggs Institute manual for evidence synthesis and the Prisma extension for scoping reviews (Prisma-ScR). Articles were independently analyzed by four reviewers and data, by two authors, which were then analyzed and discussed with our research team. RESULTS After screening 8,780 titles/abstracts and 26 full texts, 10studies met our eligibility criteria. We extracted data on methodologies, themes, definitions of obesity, outcomes, and gaps. Most initiatives came from North American countries without free or universal health systems and lasted a short period of time (70%), had multidisciplinary teams (70%), and addressed sub-themes on obesity approaches (90%). Results included changes in participants’ understanding, attitude, and procedures (80%) and gaps which pointed to the sustainability of these changes (80%). CONCLUSION This review shows the scarce research in the area and a general design of poorly effective initiatives, with traditional teaching methodologies based on information transmission techniques, the understanding of obesity as a disease and a public health problem, punctual actions, disciplinary fragmentation alien to the daily work centrality, and failure to recognize problems and territory as knowledge triggers and to focus on health care networks, line of care, the integrality of care, and food and body cultures.
  • Sexual violence against men in Brazil: underreporting, prevalence, and associated factors

    Ferreira, Denis Gonçalves; Bortoli, Maritsa Carla de; Pexe-Machado, Paula; Saggese, Gustavo Santa Roza; Veras, Maria Amelia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVOS Identificar e mapear a literatura referente à violência sexual contra meninos e homens brasileiros, bem como descrever sua subnotificação, sua prevalência e os fatores associados. MÉTODOS Realizou-se uma revisão de escopo com buscas nas bases de dados: PubMed, Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scopus e Web of Science. Os critérios de inclusão foram: (a) pesquisas que incluíssem dados sobre violência sexual; (b) inclusão de meninos ou homens como vítimas de violência sexual; (c) apresentassem dados sobre prevalência, subnotificação e fatores associados à violência sexual entre meninos e homens brasileiros. RESULTADOS Foram encontrados 1.481 trabalhos. No total, 53 foram incluídos e tiveram seus dados extraídos. A maioria dos estudos é de natureza quantitativa (n = 48). O total de participantes em todos os estudos foi de 1.416.480 e a prevalência de violência sexual variou de 0.1% a 71%. A subnotificação foi um aspecto citado em vários estudos. Entre os grupos com maiores prevalências estão os homens que fazem sexo com homens e com disfunções sexuais. Maior tendência ao uso de drogas, isolamento social, sexo anal desprotegido, ideação suicida, disfunções sexuais e transtorno de estresse pós-traumático foram alguns dos fatores associados. CONCLUSÕES A violência sexual contra meninos e homens brasileiros é pouco estudada e existem poucos estudos com esse recorte exclusivo, apesar da prevalência de a violência sexual ser alta. Questões culturais, como o machismo, contribuem para a subnotificação da violência sexual. Em relação aos fatores associados, identificamos questões relacionadas à saúde mental, sexual e reprodutiva. Recomenda-se que seja estruturado acolhimento para meninos e homens vítimas de violência sexual, prevenindo ou minimizando desfechos negativos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES Identifying and mapping the literature regarding sexual violence against Brazilian boys and men, as well as describing its underreporting, prevalence, and associated factors. METHODS We conducted a scoping review by searching PubMed, Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. The inclusion criteria were: (a) surveys including data on sexual violence; (b) inclusion of boys or men as victims of sexual violence; (c) presenting statistical data on prevalence, underreporting, and factors associated with sexual violence among Brazilian boys and men. RESULTS We found a total of 1,481 papers. Ultimately, 53 were included and had their data extracted. Most studies are quantitative in nature (n = 48). The total number of participants across studies was 1,416,480 and the prevalence of sexual violence ranged from 0.1% to 71%. It is important to note that underreporting statistical data was cited in several studies. The group with the highest prevalences was men who have sex with men and those with sexual dysfunctions. Increased tendency to drug use, social isolation, unprotected anal sex, suicidal ideation, sexual dysfunction, and post-traumatic stress disorder were statistically significant predictors for having experienced sexual violence. CONCLUSIONS Despite the prevalence of sexual violence being high against Brazilian boys and men, this area of is surprisingly understudied and there are few studies with this exclusive scope. Social cultural issues, such as sexism, contribute to the underreporting of sexual violence. Additionally, we identified issues related to mental, sexual and reproductive health to be associated with sexual violence. Based on our findings, we recommend the implementation and development of a structural infrastructure aimed at supporting boys and men who are victims of sexual violence, and preventing negative outcomes for this affected group.
  • Risk and protective factors for suicide: a populational case-control study, Brazil, 2019 Original Articles

    Ruiz, Ana Maria Pita; Fernandez, Mirla Randy Bravo; Komoda, Denis Satoshi; Treichel, Carlos Alberto dos Santos; Cordeiro, Ricardo Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To estimate risk and protection factors associated with suicide in Campinas, Brazil, in 2019. METHODS This is a populational case-control study analyzing 83 cases of suicide that occurred in 2019 in Campinas, a Brazilian city with about 1.2 million inhabitants. Controls were composed of 716 inhabitants. An adjusted multiple logistic regression was used. Cases and controls were the dichotomous response variables. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were the predictor variables. RESULTS The categories which presented higher risk of suicide were: males [OR = 5.26 (p < 0.001)]; people aged 10–29 years [OR = 5.88 (p = 0.002)]; individuals without paid work [OR = 3.06 (p = 0.013)]; individuals presenting problematic use of alcohol [OR = 33.12 (p < 0.001)] and cocaine [14.59 (p < 0.007)]; and people with disabilities [OR = 3.72 (p < 0.001)]. Moreover, the perception of fear was associated with reduced suicide risk [OR = 0.19 (p = 0.015)]. Higher district HDI levels also showed a 4% decrease in risk for each 0.01 increase in district HDI levels [OR = 0.02 (p = 0.008)]. CONCLUSIONS This study evidenced the association between sociodemographic and behavioral variables and suicide. It also emphasized the complexity in the dynamics between personal, social, and economic factors to this external cause of death.
  • Marker events associated with adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment in a cohort study Original Articles

    Martins, Rafael Steffens; Knauth, Daniela Riva; Vigo, Alvaro; Fisch, Patrícia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar como eventos clínicos e sociais podem impactar na adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral para o HIV. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo de coorte histórica com 528 pacientes que realizaram o tratamento para o HIV em um serviço de assistência especializada em Alvorada, RS. Foram analisadas 3429 consultas executadas entre os anos de 2004 e 2017. Para cada consulta, foram coletados dados de características do tratamento e do quadro clínico dos pacientes. A adesão, aferida pelo autorrelato dos pacientes, foi o desfecho do estudo. O modelo de regressão logística via equações de estimação generalizadas foi utilizado para estimação das associações. RESULTADOS 67,8% dos pacientes analisados possuem até 8 anos de estudos e 24,8% têm histórico de uso de crack e/ou cocaína. Entre os homens, estar assintomático [razão de chances (RC) = 1,43; IC95% 1,05–1,93], possuir mais de 8 anos de estudo (RC = 2,32; IC95% 1,27–4,23) e nunca ter usado crack (RC = 2,35; IC95% 1,20–4,57) estiveram associados à adesão. Para as mulheres, possuir mais de 24 anos (RC = 1,82; IC95% 1,09–3,02), nunca ter usado cocaína (RC = 2,54; IC95% 1,32–4,88) e estar em gestação (RC = 3,28; IC95% 1,83–5,89) aumentaram as chances de adesão. CONCLUSÕES Além de características sociodemográficas definidas, eventos pontuais que podem ocorrer na trajetória de pacientes em tratamentos longos, como início de uma nova gestação e não apresentar sintomas, podem impactar nas chances de adesão dos pacientes ao tratamento.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze how clinical and social events may impact adherence to antiretroviral treatment for HIV. METHODS This is a historical cohort study with 528 patients who underwent treatment for HIV in a specialized care service in Alvorada, RS. A total of 3429 queries executed between the years 2004 and 2017 were analyzed. For each visit, data on treatment characteristics and the patients’ clinical picture were collected. Adherence, as measured by patients’ self-report, was the endpoint of the study. The logistic regression model via generalized estimating equations was used for estimating the associations. RESULTS 67.8% of the patients analyzed have up to 8 years of education and 24.8% have a history of crack and/or cocaine use. Among men, being asymptomatic [odds ratio (OR) = 1.43; 95%CI 1.05-1.93], having more than 8 years of education (OR= 2.32; 95%CI 1.27-4.23), and never having used crack (RC = 2.35; 95%CI 1.20-4.57) were associated with adherence. For women, being older than 24 years (CR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.09-3.02), never having used cocaine (CR = 2.54; 95%CI 1.32-4.88) and being pregnant (RC = 3.28; 95%CI 1.83-5.89) increased the odds of adherence. CONCLUSIONS In addition to defined sociodemographic characteristics, one-off events that may occur in the trajectory of patients on long treatment, such as starting a new pregnancy and not having symptoms, can impact patients’ chances of treatment adherence.
  • Health changes during Covid-19: a nationwide study with dental students Original Articles

    Poly, Ane; Lopes, Laísa Inara Gracindo; Câmara, João Victor Frazão; Barreto, Suelem Chasse; Pereira, Gisele Damiana da Silveira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the changes in stress levels, social behavior, dietary and parafunctional habits, oral hygiene, among other conditions perceived by dental students in Brazil during the Covid-19 pandemic and evaluated the correlations between stress level and other variables. METHODS An online questionnaire was developed and validated. Undergraduates enrolled in private and public dental schools were recruited by convenience sampling. Data were collected on the perceived changes regarding stress levels, financial and social characteristics, dietary habits, oral hygiene, health conditions, and parafunctional habits. Quantitative variables were expressed as absolute and relative frequencies. Wilcoxon test evaluated comparisons between perceived changes, and correlations between changes in stress levels and other variables were analyzed by Spearman correlation (α = 0.05). RESULTS A total of 638 dental students, mean age of 22.95 ± 4.10 years, participated in the study. During the pandemic, the reported stress levels increased while household income decreased (p < 0.05). Late dinners and mindless eating increased in frequency, whereas oral hygiene decreased (p < 0.05). Most of the health conditions and parafunctional habits assessed changed (p < 0.05). Perceived stress levels showed poor negative correlations with household income (rS = −0.14), poor positive correlations with the pressure to contribute financially in the household (rS = 0.19), and poor positive correlations with food choice frequency (rS = 0.15) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Dental students reported perceived changes in stress levels, dietary habits, oral hygiene, health conditions, parafunctional habits, and social behavior. Moreover, the results showed poor correlations, as students with higher stress levels tended to have the lowest household income, feel pressured to contribute financially in the household, and present a high meal intake frequency.
  • Systematic review on health care for transvestites and transsexuals in Brazil

    Lima, Rafael Rodolfo Tomaz de; Flor, Taiana Brito Menêzes; Noro, Luiz Roberto Augusto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Sintetizar evidências científicas para caracterizar a atenção à saúde para travestis e transexuais no Brasil. MÉTODOS Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática, conduzida de julho de 2020 a janeiro de 2021 e atualizada em setembro de 2021, cujo protocolo está registrado na plataforma International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), sob o código CRD42020188719. O levantamento das evidências foi realizado em quatro bases de dados e os artigos elegíveis foram avaliados perante a qualidade metodológica, sendo incluídos aqueles com baixo risco de viés. RESULTADOS 15 artigos foram selecionados e os achados, de acordo com as suas aproximações temáticas, foram agrupados em seis categorias: Possibilidades para transformar a atenção à saúde; Travestifobia e transfobia: violações dentro e fora do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS); Despreparo profissional para a atenção às travestis e transexuais; Busca por alternativas para a atenção à saúde; Direito à saúde para travestis e transexuais: utopia ou realidade?; O Processo Transexualizador: avanços e desafios. CONCLUSÕES As evidências revelam que a atenção à saúde para travestis e transexuais no Brasil ainda é excludente, fragmentada, centralizada no cuidado especializado e pautada por ações curativas, assemelhando-se aos modelos de atenção que antecedem o SUS e que são fortemente criticados desde a Reforma Sanitária Brasileira.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To synthesize scientific evidence to characterize health care for transvestites and transsexuals in Brazil. METHODS This is a systematic review, conducted from July 2020 to January 2021 and updated in September 2021, whose protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) platform, under code CRD42020188719. The survey of evidence was carried out in four databases and eligible articles were evaluated for methodological quality, and those with a low risk of bias were included. RESULTS Fifteen articles were selected and the findings were grouped into six categories according to their thematic approaches: Possibilities to transform health care; Transvestiphobia and transphobia: violations inside and outside the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS); Professional unpreparedness to care for transvestites and transsexuals; Search for health care alternatives; Right to health for transvestites and transsexuals: utopia or reality?; The Transsexualization Process: advances and challenges. CONCLUSIONS There is evidence that health care for transvestites and transsexuals in Brazil is still exclusive, fragmented, centered on specialized care and guided by curative actions, resembling the care models that preceded the SUS and which have been heavily criticized since the Brazilian Sanitary Reform.
  • Effect of antenatal class attendance on fear of childbirth and antenatal stress Original Articles

    Yörük, Selda; Acikgoz, Ayla

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of attending antenatal classes on fear of childbirth and antenatal stress in nulliparous pregnant women. METHODS A total of 133 nulliparous pregnant women participated in the study, which had a quasi-experimental design. Data were collected by a descriptive data form, the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, and the Antenatal Perceived Stress Inventory (APSI). RESULTS A significant correlation was found between antenatal class attendance and having a high schooling level and an intended pregnancy (p < 0.05). The mean fear of childbirth score of pregnant women was 85.50 ± 19.41 before the training and 76.32 ± 20.52 after the training, and the difference between these scores was significant (p < 0.01). Fear of childbirth score were not significantly different between the intervention group and the control group. The mean APSI score of pregnant women in the intervention group was 22.32 ± 6.12 before the training and 21.79 ± 5.97 after the training. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.70). CONCLUSION The fear of childbirth score decreased significantly in the intervention group after the training.
  • Appropriate neck circumference and waist-to-height ratio cut-off points as predictors of obesity and cardiovascular risk in adolescents Original Articles

    Carvalho, Wyllyane Rayana Chaves; França, Ana Karina Teixeira da Cunha; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Padilha, Luana Lopes; Bogea, Eduarda Gomes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar os pontos de corte da circunferência do pescoço (CP) e da relação cintura-estatura (RCEst) para a predição da obesidade e do risco cardiovascular em adolescentes. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal desenvolvido com uma subamostra de 634 adolescentes de 18 e 19 anos de idade pertencentes à terceira fase da coorte “RPS” (Ribeirão Preto, Pelotas e São Luís) realizada em 2016. Identificou-se a área sob a curva ROC (AUC) para avaliar a capacidade preditiva da CP e RCE em relação ao percentual de gordura corporal (%GC), obtido pela pletismografia por deslocamento de ar (PDA), e do risco cardiovascular estimado pelo Phatobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY). RESULTADOS A prevalência de obesidade pelo %GC foi de 7,6% no sexo masculino e 39,4% no sexo feminino (p-valor < 0,001) e o alto risco para PDAY foi de 13,8% e 10,9%, respectivamente. Para a CP, o ponto de corte identificado para o sexo masculino foi de 44,0 cm e as AUC foram de 0,70 (IC95% 0,58-0,83) para predição de obesidade e de 0,71 (IC95% 0,62-0,80) para predição do alto risco cardiovascular; e para o sexo feminino foi de 40 cm e as AUC foram de 0,75 (IC95% 0,69-0,80) e de 0,63 (IC95% 0,53-0,73), respectivamente. Para a RCEst, o ponto de corte identificado foi de 0,50 para ambos os sexos e as AUC para a predição da obesidade e do alto risco segundo o PDAY foram de 0,90 (IC95% 0,80-0,99) e 0,73 (IC95% 0,63-0,82), respectivamente, para o sexo masculino; e de 0,87 (IC95% 0,83-0,90) e 0,55 (IC95% 0,45-0,65), respectivamente, para o sexo feminino. CONCLUSÃO RCEst e CP como bons discriminadores para avaliar a obesidade e risco cardiovascular em adolescentes, especialmente no sexo masculino.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine neck circumference (NC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-off points as predictors of obesity and cardiovascular risk in adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study developed with a subsample of 634 adolescents aged 18 and 19 years belonging to the third phase of the “RPS” cohort (Ribeirão Preto, Pelotas and São Luís) carried out in 2016. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was identified to assess the predictive capacity of NC and WHtR in relation to the percentage of body fat (%BF), obtained by air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and the cardiovascular risk estimated by the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY). RESULTS The prevalence of obesity by %BF was 7.6% in males and 39.4% in females (p-value <0.001), and the high PDAY risk was 13.8% and 10.9%, respectively. For males, NC cut-off point was 44.0 cm and the AUCs were 0.70 (95%CI 0.58-0.83) to predict obesity and 0.71 (95%CI 0.62-0.80) to predict high cardiovascular risk; for females, NC cut-off point was 40 cm and the AUCs were 0.75 (95%CI 0.69-0.80) and 0.63 (95%CI 0.53-0.73), respectively. WHtR cut-off point was 0.50 for both sexes; for males, the AUCs to predict obesity and high risk according to PDAY were 0.90 (95%CI 0.80-0.99) and 0.73 (95%CI 0.63-0.82), respectively; for females, they were 0.87 (95%CI 0.83-0.90) and 0.55 (95%CI 0.45-0.65), respectively. CONCLUSION WHtR and NC are good discriminators to assess obesity and cardiovascular risk in adolescents, especially in males.
  • Access to childbirth care services in the interior of Pernambuco, Northeast region of Brazil Original Articles

    Leite, Régia Maria Batista; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Silva, Maria Rejane Ferreira da; Mendes, Antônio da Cruz Gouveia; Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Veloso de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o acesso de mulheres atendidas na rede pública aos serviços de atenção ao parto, destacando-se as barreiras relacionadas à dimensão “disponibilidade e acomodação” em uma macrorregião de saúde de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico, realizado a partir dos registros de partos hospitalares do Sistema de Informação Hospitalar e de informações da Central de Regulação de Leitos do estado sobre mulheres residentes na macrorregião de saúde II, em 2018. Analisou-se os deslocamentos, considerando a distância geográfica entre o município de residência e o de ocorrência do parto, o tempo estimado do deslocamento das gestantes, a proporção de plantões bloqueados para admissão das gestantes para o parto e o motivo da indisponibilidade. RESULTADOS Em 2018, a macrorregião de saúde II realizou 84% dos partos de risco habitual e 46,9% de alto risco. Os demais partos de alto risco (51,1%) ocorreram na macrorregião I, sobretudo no Recife. A maternidade de referência para partos de alto risco dessa macrorregião teve 30,4% dos dias de plantões diurnos bloqueados para admissão de partos e 38,9% dos noturnos; o principal motivo foi a dificuldade em manter a equipe completa no serviço. CONCLUSÕES Mulheres residentes na macrorregião de saúde II de Pernambuco enfrentam grandes barreiras de acesso em busca de atendimento hospitalar para o parto, percorrendo grandes distâncias, mesmo quando gestantes de risco habitual, levando à peregrinação em busca dessa assistência. Há dificuldade de disponibilidade e acomodação nos serviços de alto risco e de emergências obstétricas, com insuficiente capacidade física e de recursos humanos. A rede de atenção obstétrica na macrorregião II de Pernambuco não está estruturada para garantir um acesso equânime à assistência das gestantes no momento do parto, o que evidencia a necessidade de sua reestruturação em aproximação ao preconizado pela Rede Cegonha.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the access of women to the public health system network to childbirth care, highlighting the barriers related to the “availability and accommodation” dimension in a health macroregion of Pernambuco. METHODS Ecological study, conducted based on hospital birth records from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), and information from the state’s Hospital Beds Regulation Center, about women residing in health macroregion II, in 2018. Displacements were reviewed considering the geographic distance between the municipality of residence and that of the childbirth; estimated time of displacement of pregnant women; ratio of shifts blocked for admission of pregnant women for delivery; and the reason for unavailability. RESULTS In 2018, health macroregion II performed 84% of usual risk childbirths, and 46.9% of high-risk childbirths. The remaining high-risk childbirths (51.1%) occurred in macroregion I, especially in Recife. The reference maternity for high-risk childbirths in that macroregion had 30.4% of the days of day shifts and 38.9% of the night shifts blocked for admission of childbirths; the main reason was the difficulty in maintaining the full team in service. CONCLUSIONS Women residing in the health macroregion II of Pernambuco face great barriers of access in search of hospital care for childbirth, traveling great distances even when pregnant women of usual risk, leading to pilgrimage in search of this care. There is difficulty regarding availability and accommodation in high-risk services and obstetric emergencies, with shortage of physical and human resources. The obstetric care network in macroregion II of Pernambuco is not structured to ensure equitable access to care for pregnant women at the time of childbirth. This highlights the need for restructuring this healthcare services pursuant to what is recommended by the Cegonha Network.
  • Early diagnosis of autism and other developmental disorders, Brazil, 2013–2019 Original Articles

    Girianelli, Vania Reis; Tomazelli, Jeane; Silva, Cosme Marcelo Furtado Passos da; Fernandes, Conceição Santos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar os fatores associados ao diagnóstico precoce do autismo e de outros tipos de transtorno global do desenvolvimento (TGD) de crianças atendidas no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantojuvenil do Sistema Único de Saúde, no período de 2013 a 2019, no Brasil. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal exploratório, com base nos dados do Registro das Ações Ambulatoriais de Saúde (RAAS) do primeiro atendimento de crianças de 1 a 12 anos. Foram estimados o risco relativo bruto (RRb) e ajustado (RRa), e respectivo intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%), utilizando o modelo de regressão de Poisson com estimativa de variância robusta. RESULTADOS Das 22.483 crianças incluídas no estudo, a maioria era do sexo masculino (81,9%), residia no mesmo município em que foi diagnosticada (96,8%) e na região Sudeste (57,7%). O diagnóstico precoce foi maior para autismo infantil (RRb= 1,48; IC95% 1,27–1,71), TGD sem designação de subtipo (RRb= 1,55; IC95% 1,34–1,80), outros TGD (RRb= 1,48; IC95% 1,21–1,81) e TGD não especificado (RRb= 1,44; IC95% 1,22–1,69) do que para autismo atípico. As crianças que residiam no mesmo município onde foi realizado o diagnóstico tiveram maior índice de diagnóstico precoce (RRb= 1,31; IC95% 1,10–1,55) do que as demais; bem como aquelas encaminhadas pela atenção básica (RRb= 1,51; IC95% 1,37–1,68) e por demanda espontânea (RRb= 1,45; IC95% 1,31–1,61) do que as oriundas de outros tipos de encaminhamento. O diagnóstico precoce foi maior a partir de 2014 e menor na região Norte quando comparada às demais. Na análise múltipla, a magnitude do RRafoi similar ao do RRb. CONCLUSÕES A identificação precoce de autismo e outros TGD tem melhorado no país, mas ainda representa cerca de 30% dos diagnósticos realizados. As variáveis incluídas no modelo foram significativas, mas ainda explicam pouco do diagnóstico precoce de crianças com autismo e outros TGD.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the factors associated with the early diagnosis of autism and other types of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children treated at the Psychosocial Care Center for Children and Adolescents of the Unified Health System, from 2013 to 2019,in Brazil. METHODS An exploratory cross-sectional study, based on data from the Record of Outpatient Health Actions (RAAS) of the first appointment of children aged 1 to 12 years. The gross (RRg) and adjusted (RRa) relative risks and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using the Poisson regression model with robust variance estimation. RESULTS Of the 22,483 children included in the study, the majority were male (81.9%), lived in the same municipality where they were diagnosed (96.8%) and in the Southeast region (57.7%). Early diagnosis was higher for childhood autism (RRg = 1.48; 95%CI 1.27–1.71) , PDD without subtype designation (RRg = 1.55; 95%CI 1.34–1.80), other PDD (RRg = 1.48; 95%CI 1.21–1.81) and PDD not otherwise specified (RRg = 1.44; 95%CI 1.22–1.69) than for atypical autism. Children residing in the same municipality where the diagnosis was made had a higher rate of early diagnosis (RRg = 1.31; 95%CI 1.10–1.55) than the others; as well as those referred by primary care (RRg = 1.51; 95%CI 1.37–1.68) and by spontaneous demand (RRg = 1.45; 95%CI 1.31–1.61) than those from other types of referral. Early diagnosis was higher from 2014 and lower in the North region than in the other regions. In the multiple analysis, the magnitude of RRa was similar to that of RRg. CONCLUSIONS Early identification of autism and other PDD has improved in Brazil, but it still represents about 30% of the diagnoses made. The variables included in the model were significant, but still explain little of the early diagnosis of children with autism and other PDD.
  • Differences in food consumption of the Brazilian population by race/skin color in 2017–2018 Original Articles

    Costa, Janaína Calu; Jesus, Amanda Cristina da Silva de; Jesus, Juliana Giaj Levra de; Madruga, Mariana Ferreira; Souza, Thays Nascimento; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o consumo alimentar no Brasil por raça/cor da pele da população. MÉTODOS Foram analisados dados de consumo alimentar da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2017–2018. Alimentos e preparações culinárias foram agrupados em 31 itens, compondo três grupos principais, definidos por características do processamento industrial: 1 – in natura/minimamente processados, 2 – processados e 3 – ultraprocessados. O percentual de calorias de cada grupo foi estimado por categorias de raça/cor da pele – branca, preta, parda, indígena e amarela –, utilizando-se regressão linear bruta e ajustada para sexo, idade, escolaridade, renda, macrorregião e área. RESULTADOS Nas análises brutas, o consumo de alimentos in natura/minimamente processados foi menor para amarelos [66,0% (Intervalo de Confiança 95% 62,4–69,6)] e brancos [66,6% (IC95% 66,1–67,1)] que para pretos [69,8% (IC95% 68,9–70,8)] e pardos [70,2% (IC95% 69,7–70,7)]. Amarelos consumiram menos alimentos processados, com 9,2% das calorias (IC95% 7,2–11,1) enquanto os demais consumiram aproximadamente 13%. Ultraprocessados foram menos consumidos por pretos [16,6% (IC95% 15,6–17,6)] e pardos [16,6% (IC95% 16,2–17,1)], e o maior consumo ocorreu entre brancos [20,1% (IC95% 19,6–20,6)] e amarelos [24,5% (IC95% 20,0–29,1)]. O ajuste dos modelos reduziu a magnitude das diferenças entre as categorias de raça/cor da pele. A diferença entre pretos e pardos em relação aos brancos diminuiu, de 3 pontos percentuais (pp), para 1,2 pp no consumo de alimentos in natura/minimamente processados e as maiores diferenças remanescentes foram no consumo de arroz e feijão, com maior percentual na alimentação de pretos e pardos. A participação de alimentos processados permaneceu aproximadamente 4 pp menor para amarelos. O consumo de ultraprocessados diminuiu aproximadamente 2 pp para brancos e amarelos; por outro lado, aumentou 1 pp no consumo de pretos, pardos e indígenas. CONCLUSÃO Diferenças no consumo alimentar segundo raça/cor da pele foram encontradas e são influenciadas por condições socioeconômicas e demográficas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate food consumption in Brazil by race/skin color of the population. METHODS Food consumption data from the Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF – Household Budget Survey) 2017–2018 were analyzed. Food and culinary preparations were grouped into 31 items, composing three main groups, defined by industrial processing characteristics: 1 – in natura/minimally processed, 2 – processed, and 3 – ultra-processed. The percentage of calories from each group was estimated by categories of race/skin color – White, Black, Mixed-race, Indigenous, and Yellow– using crude and adjusted linear regression for gender, age, schooling, income, macro-region, and area. RESULTS In the crude analyses, the consumption of in natura/minimally processed foods was lower for Yellow [66.0% (95% Confidence Interval 62.4–69.6)] and White [66.6% (95%CI 66.1–67.1)] groups than for Blacks [69.8% (95%CI 68.9–70.8)] and Mixed-race people [70.2% (95%CI 69.7–70.7)]. Yellow individuals consumed fewer processed foods, with 9.2% of energy (95%CI 7.2–11.1) whereas the other groups consumed approximately 13%. Ultra-processed foods were less consumed by Blacks [16.6% (95%CI 15.6–17.6)] and Mixed-race [16.6% (95%CI 16.2–17.1)], with the highest consumption among White [20.1% (95%CI 19.6–20.6)] and Yellow [24.5% (95%CI 20.0–29.1)] groups. The adjustment of the models reduced the magnitude of the differences between the categories of race/skin color. The difference between Black and Mixed-race individuals from the White ones decreased from 3 percentage points (pp) to 1.2 pp in the consumption of in natura/minimally processed foods and the largest differences remained in the consumption of rice and beans, with a higher percentage in the diet of Black and Mixed-race people. The contribution of processed foods remained approximately 4 pp lower for Yellow individuals. The consumption of ultra-processed products decreased by approximately 2 pp for White and Yellow groups; on the other hand, it increased by 1 pp in the consumption of Black, Mixed-race, and Indigenous peoples. CONCLUSION Differences in food consumption according to race/skin color were found and are influenced by socioeconomic and demographic conditions.
  • Health inequalities in cause-specific mortality in Costa Rica: a population-based cohort study Original Articles

    Fantin, Romain; Delpierre, Cyrille; Barboza-Solís, Cristina

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze health inequalities in cause-specific mortality in Costa Rica from 2010 to 2018, observing the main causes for inequality in the country. METHODS The National Electoral Rolls were used to follow-up all Costa Rican adults aged 20 years or older from 2010 to 2018 (n = 2,739,733) in an ecological study. A parametric survival model based on the Gompertz distribution was performed and the event death was classified according to the ICD-10. RESULTS After adjustment for urbanicity, the poorest districts had a higher mortality than the wealthier districts for most causes of death except neoplasms, mental and behavioral disorders, and diseases of the nervous system. Urban districts showed significantly higher mortality than mixed and rural districts after adjustment for wealth for most causes except mental and behavioral disorders, diseases of the nervous system, and diseases of the respiratory system. Differences according to wealth were more frequent in women than men, whereas differences according to urbanicity were more frequent in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS The study’s findings were consistent, but not fully similar, to the international literature.
  • Information on food additives on food labels in Brazil: a critical analysis Comments

    Montera, Vanessa dos Santos Pereira; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Mais, Laís Amaral; Canella, Daniela Silva

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Nos últimos tempos, questões vêm sendo levantadas sobre a segurança no uso de aditivos alimentares e em seu consumo. verificou-se que o aumento da exposição a essas substâncias, seja pela ingestão mais frequente de alimentos ultraprocessados ou pela ampla utilização e combinação de várias categorias de aditivos pela indústria, pode estar relacionado ao maior risco à saúde do consumidor. Um estudo quantificou e caracterizou aditivos alimentares encontrados nos rótulos de 9.856 alimentos e bebidas embalados disponíveis nos supermercados brasileiros. nele, foi adotado um diário de campo para registro de falhas e inconformidades nas informações presentes nas listas de ingredientes, sendo, por fim, analisadas qualitativamente e descritas de forma narrativa. Com base nisso, o objetivo deste comentário é apresentar e discutir o uso desses aditivos identificados nos rótulos e as limitações da legislação brasileira, que deveria garantir o direito à informação e a saúde da população.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Questions about the safety of food additives and their consumption have been raised in recent years. The increased exposure to these substances, either by intake of ultra-processed foods or by the broad use and combination of various categories of additives, may be related to higher risks to consumer health. This article comments on the results of a study that quantified and characterized food additives found on the labels of 9,856 packaged foods and beverages available in Brazilian supermarkets. The study adopted a field diary method to record and analyze nonconformities in the lists of ingredients. The objective of this article is to discuss the use of additives identified on the labels and the limitations of Brazilian legislation, which should guarantee the right to information and health.
  • Judicialization and right to health in Brazil: a trajectory of matches and mismatches Comments

    Vieira, Fabiola Sulpino

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Neste texto, discutem-se os impactos da judicialização na garantia do direito à saúde no Brasil e a necessidade de reavaliação do papel do Judiciário na sua proteção. Evidências da literatura técnico-científica e informações sobre a execução orçamentário-financeira e a aquisição de medicamentos do Ministério da Saúde foram utilizadas para fundamentar os argumentos. Mostra-se que, em 2019, as ações judiciais consumiram 25,2% dos recursos do Componente Especializado da Assistência Farmacêutica, sendo 21% para 10 medicamentos. Argumenta-se que, embora o Judiciário promova esse direito quando o Estado falha em assegurar o acesso a medicamentos incorporados ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), ele compromete o acesso a medicamentos da população com as determinações de aquisição de produtos não incorporados. Defende-se a necessidade de o Judiciário pautar seu controle sobre a observância dos preceitos constitucionais e legais nas políticas públicas, especialmente na política fiscal, dado seu impacto sobre o financiamento do SUS.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study discusses the impacts of judicialization on the guarantee of the right to health in Brazil and the need to reassess the role of the Judicial system in its protection. We used evidence from the technical-scientific literature and information on the budgetary-financial execution and the acquisition of medicines from the Brazilian Ministry of Health to substantiate the arguments. In 2019, lawsuits consumed 25.2% of the resources of the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Care, 21% for 10 medicines. Although the Judicial promotes this right when the State fails to ensure access to medicines incorporated into the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), this system compromises access to medicines of the population with the determinations of acquisition of non-incorporated products. The Judicial needs to guide its control over compliance with constitutional and legal precepts in public policies, especially in fiscal policy, given its impact on the financing of the SUS.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br