• Association between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 and distance from heavy traffic roads in the Mexico City metropolitan area Original articles

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Chow, Judith; Watson, John; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Romieu, Isabelle

    Abstract in Spanish:

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre las mediciones de absorción de luz de las PM2.5 a diferentes distancias de vías de tráfico y el aforo vehicular de diesel en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron mediciones de PM2.5 y su análisis de b abs en tres zonas de la Ciudad de México. Se usaron modelos GEE para evaluar el efecto de la distancia y el aforo vehicular de tráfico pesado sobre PM2.5 b abs. RESULTADOS: Se observó una tendencia decreciente en la mediana de PM2.5 b abs conforme se incrementó la distancia a las avenidas de alto tráfico (p<0.002); los niveles decrecen en 7% (CI95% 0.9-14) por cada 100 metros de incremento. Las mediciones de PM2.5 b abs se incrementan en 20% (CI95% 3-38) cuando el aforo vehicular a diesel es mayor de 150 en una hora. CONCLUSIONES: Las mediciones de PM2.5 b abs están significativamente asociadas con la distancia de avenidas con alto tránsito vehicular y con vehículos de diesel.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 at various distances from heavy traffic roads and diesel vehicle counts in Mexico City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 samples were obtained from June 2003-June 2005 in three MCMA regions. Light absorption (b abs) in a subset of PM2.5 samples was determined. We evaluated the effect of distance and diesel vehicle counts to heavy traffic roads on PM2.5 b abs using generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: Median PM2.5 b abs measurements significantly decrease as distance from heavy traffic roads increases (p<0.002); levels decreased by 7% (CI95% 0.9-14) for each 100 additional meters from heavy traffic roads. Our model predicts that PM2.5 b abs measurements would increase by 20% (CI95% 3-38) as the hourly heavy diesel vehicle count increases by 150 per hour. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 b abs measurements are significantly associated with distance from motorways and traffic density and therefore can be used to assess human exposure to traffic-related emissions.
  • HPV vaginal self-sampling among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou screening in Chile Original articles

    Léniz, Javiera; Barriga, María Isabel; Lagos, Marcela; Ibáñez, Carolina; Puschel, Klaus; Ferreccio, Catterina

    Abstract in Spanish:

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptación, preferencia y adherencia a seguimiento de la autotoma vaginal para detección del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en mujeres inasistentes a Papanicolaou (Pap) en Santiago, Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un muestreo polietápico se identificaron mujeres entre 30 y 64 años inasistentes a Pap por < 3 años, invitándolas a realizarse un Pap en su centro de salud o una autotoma vaginal a domicilio. Las muestras fueron analizadas con captura de híbridos. Las mujeres VPH+ fueron referidas a colposcopía, biopsia y tratamiento en caso necesario. RESULTADOS: 1 254 mujeres elegibles fueron contactadas; 86.5% aceptó la autotoma vaginal y 8.1% la rechazó; 124 mujeres resultaron VPH+ (11.4%: IC95% 9.6-13.5) de las que 85.5% asistió a colposcopía; 12 tenían CIN2+ (1.1%: IC95% 0.5-1.7). CONCLUSIÓN: La autotoma vaginal para detección de VPH es implementable en Chile y su utilización podría mejorar la cobertura del programa rescatando a mujeres inasistentes.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acceptance, preference and compliance with referral of vaginal self-sampling for the detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV) among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou (Pap) screening in Santiago, Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using multistage sampling we identified women aged 30-64 years who reported not receiving a Pap test in the previous three years and offered them Pap testing at the health center or vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing at home. Self-collected samples were analyzed with hybrid capture. All HPV+ women were referred for colposcopy, biopsy and treatment when needed. RESULTS: 1 254 eligible women were contacted; 86.5% performed self-sampling and 8.1% refused; 124 women were HPV+ (11.4%: 95%CI 9.6-13.5) of whom 85.5% attended colposcopy; 12 had CIN2+ (1.1%: 95 %CI 0.5-1.7). CONCLUSION: HPV vaginal self-sampling can be easily implemented in Chile and could improve coverage, successfully reaching women who drop out of the screening program.
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Cuernavaca - Morelos - Mexico
E-mail: spm@insp3.insp.mx