PUBLICATIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ON PUBLIC HEALTH
Anna Maria Rossi
EUROPEAN FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY (EFSA)
The 2010 European Union report on pesticide residues in food. EFSA Journal 2013;11(3):3130 (808 p.) doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3130. This report presents the results of the control of pesticide residues in food commodities sampled during the calendar year 2010 in the 27 EU Member States and two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway). The report also comprises the outcome of the consumer risk assessment of pesticide residues. EFSA presents for the first time the results of a pilot cumulative risk assessment (CRA) to multiple chemical residues. Finally, the report provides some recommendations aimed at the improvement of the future monitoring programmes and the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In total, more than 77 000 samples of approximately 500 different types of food (raw or processed) were analysed for pesticide residues by national competent authorities. continues at http://www.efsa.europa.eu/it/efsajournal/pub/3130.htm
The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. EFSA Journal 2013;11(4):3129 (250 p.) doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3129 The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed the information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis with 220 209 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 95548 cases in 2011. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, and Salmonella is declining in these populations. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases decreased to 1476. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 9485 confirmed verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infections were reported. This represents an increase of 159.4% compared with 2010 as a result of the large STEC/VTEC outbreak that occurred in 2011 in the EU, primarily in Germany. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. continues at http://www.efsa.europa.eu/it/efsajournal/pub/3129.htm
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO)
Lessons from HPAI. A technical stocktaking of outputs, outcomes, best practices and lessons learned from the fight against highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia 2005-2011. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013, 116 p. (FAO Animal Production and Health Paper; 176) ISBN 978 92 510 7472 5 FAO number: 111886 US $ 25.00. Over the last 3-4 years FAO's role and priority has evolved from a predominantly emergency response to long term capacity building to improve surveillance, early detection and response in HPAI-infected and at-risk countries. FAO has also broadened its HPAI programme to include other EIDs and adopted a One Health approach to promote greater multisectoral and multidisciplinary participation. This transition provides an opportunity to reflect on the work done so far in HPAI control in the Asia region, and identify achievements, success stories, challenges, lessons learned and impact. This document represents the outcome of this exercise and provides in one place the knowledge, insights and recommendations of experts with first-hand knowledge and over eight years of experience in dealing with H5N1 HPAI in Asia.
Compendium of food additive specifications. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. 76th meeting 2012. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013, 120 p. (FAO JECFA Monographs; 13) ISBN 978 92 510 7505 0 FAO number: 111922 US $ 35.00 This document contains food additive specification monographs, analytical methods, flavouring agent specifications and other information prepared at the seventy-sixth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), which was held on Geneva, Switzerland, from 5-14 June 2012. The specification monographs provide information on the identity and purity of food additives used directly in foods or in food production. This publication and other documents produced by JECFA contain information that is useful to all those who work with or are interested in food additives, including flavouring agents, and their safe use in food.
Pesticide residues in food 2012. Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Report 2012. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2012, 546 p. (FAO Plant Production and Protection Papers; 215) ISBN 978 92 510 7400 8 FAO number: 13111/E US $ 90.00
The annual Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues was held in Rome, Italy, from 11 to 20 September 2012. During the meeting the FAO Panel of Experts was responsible for reviewing pesticide use patterns (use of good agricultural practices), data on the chemistry and composition of the pesticides and methods of analysis for pesticide residues and for estimating the maximum residue levels that might occur as a result of the use of the pesticides according to good agricultural use practices. This report contains information on ADIs, ARfDs, maximum residue levels, and general principles for the evaluation of pesticides. The recommendations of the Joint Meeting, including further research and information, are proposed for use by Member governments of the respective agencies and other interested parties.
For more information visit the FAO publication catalogue http://www.fao.org/icatalog/inter-e.htm
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (ILO)
Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, revised edition 2011. Geneva: ILO Nov 2011. 48 p. (Occupational safety and health series; 22 (Rev.2011). ISBN 978 92 212 4541 4 (in English and German) Sw.fr.185.00; US $ 200.00; Euro 150.00. This revised (2011) edition of the Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses extends the applicability of the Classification to digital radiographic images of the chest, as described in a new chapter 6. Chapters 1 through 5 are identical to those that appeared in the preceding (2000) edition of the Guidelines. That text remains applicable as written for classifying conventional film-screen radiographs and the associated sets of ILO standard radiographs remain available from the ILO.
Children in hazardous work: what we know, what we need to do. Geneva: ILO 6 June 2011. 106 p. ISBN 978 92 212 4918 4 (in English, Spanish and French) Sw.fr. 15.00; US $ 15.00; Euro 10.00. This report reviews the current state of knowledge concerning children in hazardous work and presents the case for a new focus on the issue as part of the wider global effort to eliminate the worst forms of child labour. The report highlights recent global trends while comprehensively summarizing the scientific evidence base related to health and well-being of working children. It identifies the key challenges not only in understanding the effects of hazardous work on childhood development, but also in preventing and eliminating hazardous occupational exposures for children. In addition, the report features good practice approaches of various stakeholder groups that have demonstrated the potential to be scaled up and discusses the importance of an integrated policy response to the issue.
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD)
Guidance on Pesticide Compliance and Enforcement Best Practices. Paris: OECD Environment, Health and Safety, Environment Directorate. 2012 (Series on Pesticides; 71). This document provides general guidance for pesticide regulators, including those that may not have their own compliance requirements, guidance or policies. It is not intended to supersede or substitute any national/regional requirements, guidance or policies on this subject as administered by specific regulatory authorities. Regulated parties must continue to follow their country-specific requirements. The document is focussed primarily on considering health and environmental risks. The objective of this document is to provide guidance for promoting and monitoring compliance in some areas of the pesticide lifecycle. In preparing this document, the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides: Guidelines on Compliance and Enforcement of a Pesticide Regulatory Programme (FAO, 2006) was considered. In particular, the core principles of the Code were applied. More at http://www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/pesticides-biocides/oecdguidanceonpesticidecomplianceandenforcement-bestpractices.htm.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
Global status report on road safety 2013: supporting a decade of action. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2013, 308 p. ISBN 978 92 4 156456 4 The Global status report on road safety 2013 presents information on road safety from 182 countries, accounting for almost 99% of the world's population. The report indicates that worldwide the total number of road traffic deaths remains unacceptably high at 1.24 million per year. Only 28 countries, covering 7% of the world's population, have comprehensive road safety laws on five key risk factors: drinking and driving, speeding, and failing to use motorcycle helmets, seat-belts, and child restraints. This report serves as a baseline for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, declared by the UN General Assembly. Made possible through funding from Bloomberg Philanthropies, this is the second in a series of Global status reports.
Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases. Second WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2013, 140 p. ISBN 978 941 6454 0 WHO reference number: WHO/HTM/NTD/2013. The second WHO report builds on the growing sense of optimism generated by the 2012 publication of the WHO Roadmap. Commitments on the part of ministries of health in endemic countries, global health initiatives, funding agencies and philanthropists have escalated since 2010, as have donations of medicines from pharmaceutical companies and the engagement of the scientific community. This report marks a new phase and assesses opportunities and obstacles in the control, elimination and eradication of several of these diseases. Unprecedented progress over the past two years has revealed unprecedented needs for refinements in control strategies, and new technical tools and protocols. The substantial increases in donations of medicines made since the previous report call for innovations that simplify and refine delivery strategies. However, some diseases, including especially deadly ones like human African Trypanosomiasis and visceral Leishmaniasis, remain extremely difficult and costly to treat. The control of Buruli ulcer, Chagas disease and yaws is hampered by imperfect technical tools, although recent developments for yaws look promising. The report highlights progress against these especially challenging diseases, being made through the development of innovative and intensive management strategies. Innovations in vector control deserve more attention as playing a key part in reducing transmission and disease burden, especially for dengue, Chagas disease and the Leishmani-ases. Achieving universal health coverage with essential health interventions for neglected tropical diseases will be a powerful equalizer that abolishes distinctions between the rich and the poor, the young and the old, ethnic groups, and women and men.